264 million people affected worldwide 1

Depression affects over 260 million people worldwide. This number is expected to be much higher as mental health disorders tend to underreported and are difficult to diagnose. Various forms of depression exist including treatment resistant depression as well as unipolar and bipolar depression. The prevalence of these disorders is believed to have significantly increased in wake the COVID-19 pandemic.

Current Treatments 1

Upon diagnosis with depression, a range of treatment options exist. Various forms of psychotherapy help to teach people to overcome any negative attitudes or feelings they may have including; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT). Medication is often used in tandem with psychotherapy. Common medications include; SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs and MAOIs. Unfortunately, many people remain unresponsive to medications and many produce unwanted side effects.

Psychedelic research currently is in Phase IIb

Out of all the disorders for which psychedelics hold promise, depression is perhaps the most extensively studied. Clinical trials using psychedelics such as; ketamine, psilocybin, ayahuasca and DMT are underway across the globe, with some Phase IIb trials nearing completion.

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Index of psychedelics for depression

What is depression?

Depression is a mental disorder that negatively affects how a person feels, thinks and acts. Also known as major depressive disorder (MDD), depression is characterised by persistent sadness and lack of interest or pleasure in previously rewarding or enjoyable activities and can lead to disruptions in sleep and appetite [1].

According to the DSM-V (a manual for assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders), symptoms of depression include; depressed mood, diminished interest or loss of pleasure in almost all activities, feelings of worthlessness, recurrent suicidal ideation, fatigue or loss of energy and psychomotor agitation, amongst others [2]. For depression to be diagnosed, at least five symptoms must be present during the same two-week period. While different forms of depression exist, such as bipolar depression and postpartum depression, they are covered in separate reports.

Depression severely limits a person’s ability to carry out day-to-day tasks such as work, family life or even meeting friends and partaking in social activities. Approximately 260 million people across the globe have depression, making it one of the most prevalent mental disorders [3]. Moreover, depression has been one of the highest causes of years lived with disability (YLD) for the past thirty years, representing a significant portion of the global disease burden [4].

Depressive symptomology and severity can vary from person to person, making it a difficult disorder to diagnose. Furthermore, although theories such as the monoamine hypothesis have been proposed, the exact physiological mechanisms which underlie depression remain contentious [5].

A number of diagnostic tools exist to aid medical professionals when diagnosing depression. These tools include the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Although some tools are self-report measures, results are always reviewed by a medical professional.

Conventional treatment

Upon diagnosis with depression, a range of treatment options exist. Various forms of psychotherapy can help to teach people to recontextualise negative attitudes or feelings they may have. Typical forms of psychotherapy used are; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT), psychoanalytic therapy, and interpersonal therapy.

In all forms of psychotherapy, medical professionals use verbal and psychological techniques to help them while fostering a strong patient-therapist relationship [6]. In most cases, psychotherapy is provided in conjunction with medications, of which there are many.

A range of antidepressant medications exist, each exerting its effects through unique physiological mechanisms. It is worth noting that antidepressants do not cure depression; instead, they reduce the symptoms. The type of antidepressant prescribed will depend on the patient’s personal circumstances and particular symptoms.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), like Prozac or Zoloft, act by increasing serotonin levels in the brain. SNRIs such as Cymbalta work similarly to SSRIs, except they increase levels of another neurotransmitter, norepinephrine, in the brain.

Other common classes of antidepressants include tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). While people benefit from medication, many remain unresponsive, and further limitations exist.

Firstly, many medications need to be taken daily for a prolonged period to exert their effects. Additionally, the FDA requires all antidepressants to carry ‘black box’ warnings, their most severe warning, given that some side effects may include increased suicidal ideation [7]. Making matters worse, the societal stigma associated with depression drives many people to hide it, try to tough it out, or misuse alcohol or drugs to get relief [8].

With conventional treatments for depression having somewhat limited efficacy and unwanted side effects, novel treatments are needed. Fortunately, psychedelics are re-emerging into society, bringing with them the serious potential to treat depressive disorders.

Psychedelics and depression

Out of all the disorders for which psychedelics hold promise, depression is perhaps the most extensively studied. Many of the clinical trials that have taken place or are underway focus on treatment-resistant depression (TRD). As the name suggests, people who have TRD do not respond to conventional treatments and therefore, there is an unmet need to help these people.

On the basis of the vast amount of preliminary clinical evidence available, even the FDA has recognised the potential of psychedelics to treat the unmet needs of those with major depressive disorder. In 2019, the FDA awarded ‘breakthrough therapy’ status to both esketamine and psilocybin for treating TRD. This designation helps to accelerate the drug development and review process, ultimately helping patients access these therapies as quickly as possible.

Across the globe, researchers are at various stages of the drug development process exploring the potential of a whole range of psychedelics to treat depressive disorders, largely showing great promise in small trials.


In 1970, ketamine was approved for use as an anaesthetic by the FDA. Unlike other anaesthetics, ketamine doesn’t slow breathing or heart rate and therefore, can be used with the need of a ventilator [10].

Ketamine doesn’t fall into the category of classic psychedelics, rather it is a dissociative meaning it distorts one’s perception of sight and sound and produces feelings of detachment from the environment and/or self [10]. Medical professionals began to notice that this dissociative state may be of therapeutic value for mental disorders.

It wasn’t until the early 2000s that researchers began exploring the potential antidepressant effects of ketamine in a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial [11]. Given that ketamine is easily accessible when compared to other psychedelics, research has flourished in the past years.

Two main types of ketamine are used to treat depression; arketamine and esketamine. Racemic ketamine (ar/es-ketamine) is currently being used off-label to treat depression. This form of ketamine is a mixture of both the “R” and “S” ‘handedness’ of ketamine molecules is often administered intravenously.

The latter, esketamine, is given as nasal spray and its manufacturers Janssen Pharmaceuticals have been awarded FDA approval to sell this form under the brand name Spravato.

It is believed that ketamine exerts its therapeutic effects by binding to NMDA receptors in the brain, increasing levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate then activates AMPA receptors which, in turn, promotes synaptogenesis and likely affects mood, thought patterns, and cognition [12].

One of the main beneficial effects of ketamine, when compared to other antidepressants, is its ability to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression. Recently, the ASPIRE I and ASPIRE II studies demonstrated that esketamine can rapidly reduce symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder with active suicidal ideation with intent. A pooled analysis of these Phase III trials can be found here.

These findings demonstrate rapid and robust efficacy of esketamine nasal spray in reducing depressive symptoms in severely ill patients with major depressive disorder who have active suicidal ideation with intent.

Fu et al. 2020

This open-label study found that the effects of repeated ketamine infusion persisted for 18 days, which is in agreeance with the current literature.

Although the effects may not be long lasting, the speed at which ketamine acts is of particular use, particularly in patients who are depressed and have accompanying suicidal ideation. The exact long-term effects of repeated ketamine doses still have to be thoroughly investigated. However, given the legal medical status of ketamine, it is a widely available treatment option. A plethora of clinics offering ketamine-assisted therapy exist in the U.S and some in Europe.


One of the first studies exploring the effects of psilocybin for the treatment of people with depression took place in 2016 at Imperial College London. Led by Dr Robin Carhart-Harristhis open-label feasibility study demonstrated that psilocybin along with psychological support can reduce depressive symptoms over periods of one week to three months after treatment, with no serious adverse effects.

A 6-month follow-up study found the antidepressant effects incurred by participants remained significant. Since then, researchers have been exploring the potential of psilocybin to treat depression across the globe.

At Johns Hopkins, the research team found that two psilocybin-assisted therapy sessions produced a long-lasting (up to 8 weeks) reduction in symptoms in those with major depressive disorder.

At the 12-month follow-up, a durable antidepressant effect was observed with treatment response (⩾50% reduction in GRID-HAMD score from baseline, Cohen d = 2.4) and rate of remission at 75% and 58%, respectively, at 12 months. No serious adverse events related to psilocybin were observed.

Recently, Dr Carhart-Harris led a double-blind placebo-controlled study comparing psilocybin to escitalopram, a common SSRI used to treat depression. Although the researchers found no significant difference between the psilocybin group and the control group on their main measure of depression (QIDS-SR16), the study did find significant differences, favouring psilocybin, on the HAM-D-17 and the MADRS.

 Although limited conclusions can be drawn about treatment efficacy from open-label trials, tolerability was good, effect sizes large and symptom improvements appeared rapidly after just two psilocybin treatment sessions and remained significant 6 months post-treatment in a treatment-resistant cohort.

Carhart-Harris et al. 2017

Many more trials are underway investigating the efficacy of psilocybin for treating various aspects of depressive disorders. Perhaps the largest of these trials is being undertaken by COMPASS Pathways, using their synthetic derivative of psilocybin. They have conducted a randomised controlled Phase IIb study of psilocybin therapy with 233 patients with treatment-resistant depression in 22 sites across Europe and North America, the largest Phase IIb study using psychedelics to date.

Recently, COMPASS published the preliminary findings from this study. It was found that a single dose of psilocybin (25mg) administered in conjunction with psychological support led to a statistically significant treatment difference of -6.6 points on change from baseline in MADRS total scores when compared to the control group. Moreover, the 25mg group demonstrated statistically significant efficacy from the day after the COMP360 psilocybin administration.

In spite of these positive results, a number of serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported. A total of 12 patients reported SAEs including; suicidal behaviour, intentional self-injury, and suicidal ideation at least one month after psilocybin administration. Such findings cannot be overlooked in light of the positive effects psilocybin-assisted therapy had on depression scores. For treatment models using psychedelics to become viable therapy options, we must fully understand the positive as well as the negative effects of these treatments.

Numerous studies have taken place in order to determine how psilocybin may alleviate the symptoms of depression, many of which are utilizing modern neuroimaging techniques. Using fMRI, Carhart-Harris and colleagues found changes in brain connectivity after psilocybin-assisted treatment in patients with treatment-resistant depression.

It has been postulated that psychedelics have the ability of psychedelics to alleviate symptoms related to serotonergic signalling in the brain’s default mode network (DMN) [13]. The DMN is a collection of pathways that govern our self-image, our autobiographical memories, and our deeply ingrained beliefs and thought patterns [14]. By reducing activity in this brain region, psychedelics allow people to alter the engrained beliefs which may be underlying their depressive symptoms.

In all studies, the importance of the psychotherapy aspect is emphasized. Patients need to prepare for the psychedelic experience, all while integration sessions are needed afterwards to make sense of the experience and gain the full therapeutic benefit.

As psychedelics may ‘turn off’ the DMN, the post-psychedelic experience integration session allows patients to more easily address and alter the thought patterns underlying their depression. This period of increased psychological flexibility is considered an important mediator of the therapeutic effects of psychedelic drugs, although further research is needed for definitive evidence [15].


During the first wave of psychedelic research in the 1950s and 1960s, psychedelics were being used to treat a range of disorders. James Rucker and colleagues (2016) provide a comprehensive review of psychedelics, namely lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), being used to treat unipolar mood disorders during this era.

The authors found that out of 423 participants across 19 studies, depressive symptoms were improved in 80% of patients. While the methodological standards of this era would not pass today, researchers have renewed interest regarding the potential of LSD to treat depressive disorders.

One reason why there is more research being done with psilocybin, next to the shorter duration, is that LSD still contains a lot of (counter) cultural baggage and thus will be less likely to be approved for research, with psilocybin being a more ‘sciency’ sounding name with fewer connotations.

In spite of this, some modern research has taken place using LSD to treat mental health disorders. Peter Gasser and colleagues (2014) found that when administering LSD (200μg) to patients with end-of-life anxiety, the significant anxiolytic effect of LSD were found to be similar to the studies secondary measures; depression. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure both anxiety and depression in this study.


Ayahuasca is a relatively well-studied compound that is showing efficacy when it comes to alleviating the symptoms of depressive disorders. This psychoactive brew has been used ceremonially by indigenous communities across Central and South America for centuries. Today, people from across the globe travel to ayahuasca retreats in search of the therapeutic benefits this plant possess.

An open-label study found that participants in these retreats reported improved scores of mental health parameters including depression, anxiety and self-compassion. In this study, 77% of participants who were depressed before the retreat, were no longer depressed directly after or at 6-month follow-up. While such findings are positive, participants were self-selected and there was no control group.

retrospective survey study found that ayahuasca improved specific depressive symptoms (CESD-10) namely hope, depressed mood, and happiness.

In another open-label study, researchers found that a single dose of ayahuasca had significant antidepressant effects (measured using the HDRS and BDI, among others) which lasted up to 21 days.

Administration of ayahuasca was associated with rapid and sustained antidepressive effects. Results were similar across volunteers, regardless of the severity of the current depressive episode.

Faria Sanches et al. 2016

In 2019, Fernanda Palhano-Fontes and colleagues conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial to explore the effects of ayahuasca in those with treatment-resistant depression. Although improvements in depression were similar in both the ayahuasca and placebo groups initially, the study found a significantly higher response rate in the ayahuasca group after a week. 

Further analysis of these findings by Richard Zeifman and colleagues found that ayahuasca shows potential as a fast-acting innovative treatment for suicidal ideation.

Several studies have investigated how ayahuasca may exert its therapeutic effects on those with depression, although the exact pharmacology remains unclear. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial observed a link between changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels and the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca. BDNF is a protein that has been shown to increase in levels after treatment with classical psychedelics like ayahuasca and LSD.

similarly designed study explored the influence of ayahuasca on inflammatory biomarkers in those with treatment-resistant depression. Researchers found reductions in the concentration of C-reactive protein 48 hours after treatment and this may relate to the observed improvements in the patient’s depressive symptoms.

In a separate study, researchers found that a single dose of ayahuasca increased patients cortisol response to levels similar to healthy controls. These findings indicated another method through which ayahuasca may exert its antidepressant effects as cortisol plays a role in regulating emotional and cognitive processes related to the causes of depression.


Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), one of the psychoactive components of ayahuasca, is also being investigated separately for its therapeutic potential regarding the treatment of depression. Although many anecdotal reports exist surrounding the benefits of using DMT, few clinical trials have taken place to determine these effects.

Nonetheless, Small Pharma working in collaboration with Imperial College London, received regulatory approval in the UK for the world’s first trial testing the efficacy of DMT for major depressive disorder. The Phase I/IIa trial will determine the safety and efficacy of DMT in a small number of patients. Small Pharma has recently announced the preliminary findings from the Phase I arm of this dose-escalating, placebo-controlled study. 

A total of 32 healthy psychedelic naïve volunteers, across four dose cohorts, received either SPL026 (their intravenous DMT formulation) in combination with psychotherapy (n=24) or placebo (n=8). The preliminary results indicate that SPL206 is well tolerated and can be safely administered as no serious adverse events were reported while minimal, short-lived adverse events were reported on dosing day.

Another DMT compound under investigation is for the treatment of depression is 5-MeO-DMT. A survey study (n=362) found that 5-MeO-DMT used in a naturalistic group setting is associated with unintended improvements in both depression and anxiety.

Dublin-based, GH Research, has recently announced the results of a phase I trial with their 5-MeO-DMT formulation (GH001). In the trial, seven out of eight patients with TRD were in remission at day seven after dosing. GH001 was well-tolerated, without serious adverse events reported.


A number of companies are hoping to harness the potential of psychedelics to treat depression. One of the most prolific companies in this space is the aforementioned COMPASS Pathways which is actively conducting clinical trials across the world using psilocybin to treat depression.

The London-based company was awarded breakthrough therapy status by the FDA for its psilocybin therapy for treatment-resistant depression. Specifically, COMPASS has developed a synthetic version of psilocybin called COMP360 which they are using in their clinical trials.

Recently, COMPASS was granted patents in the US for this specific molecule. COMPASS is collaborating with institutions from all over the world to realize the therapeutic potential of COMP360. Furthermore, COMPASS is collaborating with another well-known company in the world of psychedelics, atai Life Sciences.

atai is working towards using psychedelics to treat a number of disorders, one of which is treatment-resistant depression. As well as working with COMPASS and their COMP360 molecule, atai is also trialling other psychedelics including Salvinorin A, DMT as well as arketamine for the treatment of depression.

Through their Perception Neuroscience subsidiary, atai is developing PCN-101 (arketamine) for the treatment of depression and should be starting Phase II trials in the near future. From their Viridia Life Sciences subsidiary, atai is developing DMT in conjunction with digital therapeutics to help patients with treatment-resistant depression. The Berlin-based company has many other compounds in their pipeline for treating various disorders such as opioid use disorder, PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder.

Field Trip Health recently announced they have chosen treatment-resistant depression and postpartum depression as the target disorders for their molecule FT-104, a synthetic derivative of psilocybin. Similar to psilocybin, FT-104 is a 5HT2A receptor agonist although its psychoactive effects are expected to be much shorter in duration. Field Trip currently offers ketamine-assisted therapies for depression, amongst other mental health disorders, at its clinics across North America.

Novamind is similarly building a network of treatment clinics that currently work with ketamine (and esketamine) for (treatment-resistant) depression. With eight clinics and a research division (Cedar Clinical Research), Novamind is one of the places that is currently putting the research into practice.

Toronto-based PharmaTher is developing KETABET, a wearable patch that administers ketamine safely and conveniently in order to treat those with treatment-resistant depression. At present, trials exploring KETABET are in Phase I/IIa.

Overall, with the volume of work being done in this particular area of psychedelic science, it shouldn’t be long before people with depression can reap the benefits of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy and for many people, treatment-resistant depression becomes a thing of the past.

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1. World Health Organization. (2021). Depression. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression

2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Depression – Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK519712/table/ch3.t5/

3. Dattani, S., Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2018). Mental Health. Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/mental-health

4. HME. (2021). Global Health Data Exchange. Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation. Retrieved from http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool?params=gbd-api-2019-permalink/d780dffbe8a381b25e1416884959e88b

5. Hirschfeld, R. (2000). History and evolution of the monoamine hypothesis of depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 4-6. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10775017/

6. Schimelpfening, N. (2020). 6 Types of Psychotherapy for Depression. VeryWell Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/types-of-psychotherapy-for-depression-1067407

7. Drugwatch. (2020). Black Box Warnings. Drugwatch. Retrieved from https://www.drugwatch.com/fda/black-box-warnings/

8. WebMD. (2019). Understanding Depression – Diagnosis and Treatment. WebMD. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/depression/guide/understanding-depression-treatment

9. Collins, S. (2021). Ketamine for Depression: What to Know. WebMD. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/depression/features/what-does-ketamine-do-your-brain

10. Alcohol and Drug Foundation. (2021). Dissociatives. Alcohol and Drug Foundation. Retrieved from https://adf.org.au/drug-facts/dissociatives/

11. Berman, R., Cappiello, A., Anad, A., Oren, D., Heninger, G., Charney, D., & Krystal, J. (2000). Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients. Biological Psychiatry.

12. Meisner, R. (2019). Ketamine for major depression: New tool, new questions. Harvard Health. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/ketamine-for-major-depression-new-tool-new-questions-2019052216673

13. Mason, N. L., Kuypers, K. P. C., Reckweg, J. T., Müller, F., Tse, D. H. Y., Da Rios, B., … & Ramaekers, J. G. (2021). Spontaneous and deliberate creative cognition during and after psilocybin exposureTranslational psychiatry11(1), 1-13.

14. Buckner, R., Andrews-Hanna, J., & Schacter, D. (2008). The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1-38. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18400922/

15. Davis, A., Barrett, F., & Griffiths, R. (2020). Psychological flexibility mediates the relations between acute psychedelic effects and subjective decreases in depression and anxiety. Journal of Contextual Behavioural Science.

Highlighted Institutes

These are the institutes, from companies to universities, who are working on Depression.

McGill University

Psychedelic research is well underway at McGill University. At the Neurobiological Psychiatry Unit, researchers are assessing the effects of psychedelics at the behavioral, brain circuit, neuronal, and subcellular levels.

Canadian Rapid Treatment Centre of Excellence

Established in 2018 the Canadian Rapid Treatment Centre of Excellence offers ketamine therapy to aid those suffering from several treatment-resistant conditions such as depression and bipolar disorder.


EI.Ventures is a subsidiary of Orthogonal Thinker that is currently raising $50 million. Though scant on details, the company is developing Psilly (whole-plant botanical psilocybin-based formulation) and has (presumably) launched a consumer non-psychedelic mushroom brand 'Mana'.

Revixia Life Sciences

Revixia Life Sciences is a biotech company developing Salvinorin A (salvia) for substance use disorders (SUD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and pain.

ATAI Life Sciences

atai Life Sciences is one of the biggest companies in the psychedelics field. The company aims to be a platform and has nine subsidiary companies working on everything from psilocybin for depression to DMT administration.

Compass Pathways

COMPASS Pathways is a publicly listed company (NASDAQ) that is developing psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) for which it has completed a successful Phase IIb trial. COMPASS is one of the largest psychedelic companies and has received substantial investment from atai.


Pharmather is a Canadian life sciences listed company that is developing psychedelics for brain and nervous system disorders.

Viridia Life Sciences

Viridia Life Sciences is a subsidiary of ATAI that investigates DMT and the possible administration of it.

Perception Neuroscience

Perception Neuroscience is a subsidiary of atai that is developing arketamine therapy for neuropsychiatric diseases.

Imperial College London

The Centre for Psychedelic Research studies the action (in the brain) and clinical use of psychedelics, with a focus on depression.

Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University (Medicine) is host to the Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research, which is one of the leading research institutes into psychedelics. The center is led by Roland Griffiths and Matthew Johnson.

Johnson & Johnson

One of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, Johnson & Johnson are responsible for bringing esketamine to market in the form of Spravato.

Small Pharma

Small Pharma works on the development of two drugs. Together with Imperial College London they are developing intravenous administration DMT. The other project is a variant on ketamine (SPL801B).

Field Trip

Field Trip is a company that offers psychedelics therapies. It has several locations (US/CA) that provides ketamine-assisted therapy. It has raised $19.5M in Series A & B funding rounds.


Novamind has bold plans for building out a psychedelic ecosystem. One that spans from ketamine-assisted psychotherapy and psilocybin retreats to novel clinical trials.

Highlighted People

These are some of the best-known people, from researchers to entrepreneurs, working on Depression.

Cristina Albott

Cristina Albott is a psychiatrist who treats patients in need of mental health care. She is currently leading a trial investigating the effectiveness of repeated ketamine infusions in veterans with PTSD and comorbid depression.

Madeline Li

Madeline Li is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network and a clinician-scientist in the Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care a the University of Toronto.

Pierre Blier

Pierre Blier is a Professor at the University of Ottawa, Department of Psychiatry and Cellular/Molecular Medicines and the recipient of the Endowed Chair in Mood Disorders Research at the University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research (IMHR).

Joshua Rosenblat

Joshua Rosenblat is a psychiatrist and clinician-researcher at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit at the University of Toronto. He is also the Medical Director of the Canadian Rapid Treatment Centre of Excellence (CRCTE), Chief Medical & Scientific Officer of Braxia Scientific and co-founder of 1907 Research.

Rafael dos Santos

Rafael dos Santos is a postdoctoral fellow at the Graduate Program in Mental Health at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (FMRP-USP), where he also works as an accredited advisor.

Declan McLoughlin

Declan McLoughlin is a Research Professor of Psychiatry at the Trinity Institute of Neurosciences (TCIN) in Trinity College Dublin.

Dulce Martinez

Dulce Maria Rascon Martinez is an Associate Professor in the Department of Anaesthesiology at the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

Eric Lenze

Eric Lenze is the Wallace & Lucille Renard Professor of Psychiatry and the Director of the Healthy Mind Lab at Washington University School of Medicine. As part of his research, Lenze has explored the therapeutic effects of ketamine in older adults.

Mark Niciu

Mark Niciu is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Iowa. Mark and his team are interested in the therapeutic effects of ketamine.

Sanjay Mathew

Sanjay is a Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Director of the Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program at Baylor College of Medicine. He is currently exploring the use of ketamine in treating mood disorders.

Lou Lukas

Lou A. Lukas is a family medicine doctor in Omaha, Nebraska and is affiliated with Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System-Omaha. She is acting as the principal investigator in a study using psilocybin to treat psychological distress associated with cancer.

Anna Beck

Anna Beck is the Director of Supportive Oncology and Survivorship and an investigator at Huntsman Cancer Institute. She is the principal investigator on a trial using psilocybin in patients with cancer.

Joshua Woolley

Josh Woolley is an Associate Professor in Residence in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the UCSF. He is also the current Director of the Translational Psychedelic Research (TrPR) Program at UCSF.

Scott Irwin

Scott Irwin is the Director of the Patient and Family Support Program and Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences at Cedars-Sinai. Dr Irwin has served as the principal investigator in numerous trials exploring the effects of ketamine on mental health issues in patients with cancer.

George Goldsmith

George Goldsmith is the CEO, Co-Founder, and Chairman of Compass Pathways, which he has led since July 2016.

Robin Carhart-Harris

Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris is the Founding Director of the Neuroscape Psychedelics Division at UCSF. Previously he led the Psychedelic group at Imperial College London.

Fernanda Palhano Xavier de Fontes

Fernanda Palhano Xavier de Fontes is a research engineer at the Brain Institute, UFRN. Her main areas of interest are psychedelics, psychiatry, and neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and electroencephalography.

Richard Zeifman

Richard Zeifman is working at Imperial College London on psychedelics as a novel intervention for suicidality.

Linked Research Papers about Depression

Antidepressant effects of a psychedelic experience in a large prospective naturalistic sample

Arketamine, a new rapid-acting antidepressant: A historical review and future directions

Switch to mania after ayahuasca consumption in a man with bipolar disorder: a case report

Psilocybin with psychological support improves emotional face recognition in treatment-resistant depression

Ketamine for bipolar depression: a systematic review

Effects of psilocybin versus escitalopram on rumination and thought suppression in depression

Safety and effectiveness of intranasal esketamine for treatment-resistant depression: a real-world retrospective study

Patient Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Evaluating the Risk of Psilocybin for the Treatment of Bipolar Depression: A Systematic Review of Published Case Studies

Replication of distinct trajectories of antidepressant response to intravenous ketamine

The use of ketamine as an antidepressant: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ketamine and other N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in the treatment of depression: a perspective review

Changes in mental health, wellbeing and personality following ayahuasca consumption: Results of a naturalistic longitudinal study

Psychedelic therapy for depressive symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Esketamine in the Treatment of Suicidality in Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Depression

Intranasal drug delivery in neuropsychiatry: focus on intranasal ketamine for refractory depression

Administration of ketamine for unipolar and bipolar depression

Efficacy and Safety of Ketamine vs Electroconvulsive Therapy Among Patients With Major Depressive Episode: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Micro-dose, macro-impact: Leveraging psychedelics in frontline healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Safety, effectiveness and tolerability of sublingual ketamine in depression and anxiety: A retrospective study of off-label, at-home use

Acute and Sustained Reductions in Loss of Meaning and Suicidal Ideation Following Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy for Psychiatric and Existential Distress in Life-Threatening Cancer

Arketamine as adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant depression: A placebo-controlled pilot study

Antianhedonic effects of serial intravenous subanaesthetic ketamine in anxious versus nonanxious depression

Intravenous Ketamine for Late-Life Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Pilot Study of Tolerability, Safety, Clinical Benefits, and Effect on Cognition

Cognitive Function Mediates the Anti-suicide Effect of Repeated Intravenous Ketamine in Adult Patients With Suicidal Ideation

Adverse Events and Measurement of Dissociation after the First Dose of Esketamine in Patients with TRD

Maintenance ketamine treatment for depression: a systematic review of efficacy, safety, and tolerability

Brain dynamics predictive of response to psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression

A Bayesian Reanalysis of a Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression

A Novel, Brief, Fully Automated Intervention to Extend the Antidepressant Effect of a Single Ketamine Infusion: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Single-dose psilocybin-assisted therapy in major depressive disorder: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised clinical trial

Prospective association of psychological pain and hopelessness with suicidal thoughts

Sex differences in sub-anesthetic ketamine’s antidepressant effects and abuse liability

Biomarkers of ketamine's antidepressant effect: An umbrella review

Spectral changes of EEG following a 6-week low-dose oral ketamine treatment in adults with major depressive disorder and chronic suicidality

Ibogaine treatment outcomes for opioid dependence from a twelve-month follow-up observational study

Ketamine: A Paradigm Shift for Depression Research and Treatment

International pooled patient-level meta-analysis of ketamine infusion for depression: In search of clinical moderators

Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Unipolar and Bipolar Major Depression: Critical Review and Implications for Clinical Practice

Psilocybin Therapy for Treatment Resistant Depression: Prediction of Clinical Outcome by Natural Language Processing

Psychedelic replications in virtual reality and their potential as a therapeutic instrument: an open-label feasibility study

NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites

Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on reinforcement learning in humans

Patients' recovery and non-recovery narratives after intravenous ketamine for treatment-resistant depression

Clinical Effectiveness of Intravenous Racemic Ketamine Infusions in a Large Community Sample of Patients With Treatment-Resistant Depression, Suicidal Ideation, and Generalized Anxiety Symptoms: A Retrospective Chart Review

Intranasal esketamine effectively treats treatment-resistant depression in adults regardless of baseline irritability

Single-dose psilocybin for a treatment-resistant episode of major depression: Impact on patient-reported depression severity, anxiety, function, and quality of life

Participation in an indigenous Amazonian led ayahuasca retreat associated with increases in nature relatedness – a pilot study

Psilocybin-assisted therapy mediates psycho-social-spiritual change in cancer patients as assessed by the NIH-HEALS

Oral Ketamine for Depression: An Updated Systematic Review

At-home, sublingual ketamine telehealth is a safe and effective treatment for moderate to severe anxiety and depression: Findings from a large, prospective, open-label effectiveness trial

Real-world experience of esketamine use to manage treatment-resistant depression: A multicentric study on safety and efficacy (REAL-ESK study)

Treating Bipolar Depression with Esketamine: Safety and Effectiveness data from a naturalistic multicentric study on Esketamine in Bipolar versus Unipolar Treatment-Resistant Depression

Prophylactic action of ayahuasca in a non-human primate model of depressive-like behavior

Effect of Psilocybin and Ketamine on Brain Neurotransmitters, Glutamate Receptors, DNA and Rat Behavior

The effect of ketamine on cognition, anxiety, and social functioning in adults with psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Single-Dose Psilocybin for a Treatment-Resistant Episode of Major Depression

Trajectory of Antidepressant Effects after Single- or Two-Dose Administration of Psilocybin: A Systematic Review and Multivariate Meta-Analysis

Psilocybin-assisted therapy for major depressive disorder: An exploratory placebo-controlled, fixed-order trial

Serotonergic antidepressant use is associated with weaker psilocybin effects

Ketamine's effect on inflammation and kynurenine pathway in depression: A systematic review

Ketamine in Bipolar Disorder: A Review

Holding on or letting go? Patient experiences of control, context, and care in oral esketamine treatment for treatment-resistant depression: A qualitative study

Efficacy and safety of ketamine in bipolar depression: A systematic review

Ketamine as Add-On Treatment in Psychotic Treatment-Resistant Depression

A comparison of the antianhedonic effects of repeated ketamine infusions in melancholic and non-melancholic depression

Psilocybin-assisted group therapy for demoralized older long-term AIDS survivor men: An open-label safety and feasibility pilot study

A Randomized Add-on Trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate Antagonist in Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Depression

Anti-anhedonic effect of ketamine and its neural correlates in treatment-resistant bipolar depression

Methylone, a rapid acting entactogen with robust anxiolytic and antidepressant-like activity

Single Ketamine Infusion and Neurocognitive Performance in Bipolar Depression

The experimental effects of psilocybin on symptoms of anxiety and depression: A meta-analysis

Functional connectivity of the amygdala and the antidepressant and antisuicidal effects of repeated ketamine infusions in major depressive disorder

The effects of ketamine and classic hallucinogens on neurotrophic and inflammatory markers in unipolar treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review of clinical trials

Parental Attitudes Toward Use of Ketamine in Adolescent Mood Disorders and Suicidality

Cancer at the dinner table: experiences of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of cancer-related distress

Ketamine plus imipramine treatment induces antidepressant-like behavior and increases CREB and BDNF protein levels and PKA and PKC phosphorylation in rat brain

Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin

Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy

An Update on the Efficacy and Tolerability of Oral Ketamine for Major Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Psychedelics and dying care: A historical look at the relationship between psychedelics and palliative care

Positive expectations predict improved mental-health outcomes linked to psychedelic microdosing

LSD in the supportive care of the terminally ill cancer patient

The peak experience variable in DPT-assisted psychotherapy with cancer patients

Efficacy of ketamine in the rapid treatment of major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies

Acute psychoactive effects of intravenous ketamine during treatment of mood disorders: analysis of the Clinician Administered Dissociative State Scale

Comparative efficacy of racemic ketamine and esketamine for depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Natural speech algorithm applied to baseline interview data can predict which patients will respond to psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression

Psilocybin-Assisted Compassion Focused Therapy for Depression

Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment

Individual Experiences in Four Cancer Patients Following Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy

Longterm effects of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a 5-year qualitative follow-up

The relationship between subjective effects induced by a single dose of ketamine and treatment response in patients with major depressive disorder: a systematic review

Single-dose infusion ketamine and non-ketamine N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists for unipolar and bipolar depression: a meta-analysis of efficacy, safety and time trajectories

The use of the psychological flexibility model to support psychedelic assisted therapy

Insights for the Use of Ketamine From Randomized Controlled Trials That Compared Ketamine With Electroconvulsive Therapy in Severe Depression

Evaluation of Individual Items of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) in Adults with Treatment-Resistant Depression Treated with Esketamine Nasal Spray Combined with a New Oral Antidepressant

Past-Year Hallucinogen Use in Relation to Psychological Distress, Depression, and Suicidality among US Adults

The Effects of Psilocybin in Adults with Major Depressive Disorder and The General Population

Increased global integration in the brain after psilocybin therapy for depression

The efficacy of psilocybin in the treatment of depression and anxiety: A meta-analysis

Pharmacokinetics of N,N-Dimethyltrypatamine Fumarate in Humans

Neurocognitive effects of repeated ketamine infusions in comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder

Exploratory study of the dose-related safety, tolerability, and efficacy of dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in healthy volunteers and major depressive disorder

A Systematic Review of Neurocognitive Effects of Subanesthetic Doses of Intravenous Ketamine in Major Depressive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Healthy Population

Real-world effectiveness of ketamine in treatment-resistant depression: A systematic review & meta-analysis

A single intravenous administration of a sub-anesthetic ketamine dose during the perioperative period of cesarean section for preventing postpartum depression: A meta-analysis

Effects of Naturalistic Psychedelic Use on Depression, Anxiety, and Well-Being: Associations With Patterns of Use, Reported Harms, and Transformative Mental States

Dissociative symptoms with intravenous ketamine in treatment-resistant depression exploratory observational study

Single bolus low-dose of ketamine does not prevent postpartum depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical trial

Central nervous system-related safety and tolerability of add-on ketamine to antidepressant medication in treatment-resistant depression: focus on the unique safety profile of bipolar depression

Methodological challenges in psychedelic drug trials: Efficacy and safety of psilocybin in treatment-resistant major depression (EPIsoDE) – Rationale and study design

Therapeutic effect of an ayahuasca analogue in clinically depressed patients: a longitudinal observational study

Depression, Estrogens, and Neuroinflammation: A Preclinical Review of Ketamine Treatment for Mood Disorders in Womens

A retrospective analysis of ketamine intravenous therapy for depression in real-world care settings

Dose-related effects of ketamine for antidepressant-resistant symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in veterans and active duty military: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multi-center clinical trial

Exploring the Credibility of Psilocybin-assisted Therapy and Cognitive-behavioral Therapy for Depression

Lifetime use of MDMA/ecstasy and psilocybin is associated with reduced odds of major depressive episodes

Comparative effectiveness of repeated ketamine infusions in treating anhedonia in bipolar and unipolar depression

Frequency analysis of symptomatic worsening following ketamine infusions for treatment resistant depression in a real-world sample: Results from the canadian rapid treatment center of excellence

Psilocybin-assisted therapy for the treatment of resistant major depressive disorder (PsiDeR): protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled feasibility trial

Identification of an optimal dose of intravenous ketamine for late-life treatment-resistant depression: a Bayesian adaptive randomization trial

Antianhedonic Effect of Repeated Ketamine Infusions in Patients With Treatment Resistant Depression

Effects of Ketamine Versus Midazolam on Neurocognition at 24 Hours in Depressed Patients With Suicidal Ideation

Prolonged epigenomic and synaptic plasticity alterations following single exposure to a psychedelic in mice

The potential pro-cognitive effects with intravenous subanesthetic ketamine in adults with treatment-resistant major depressive or bipolar disorders and suicidality

Use of ketamine and esketamine for depression: an overview of systematic reviews with meta-analyses

Can Quetiapine Prolong the Antidepressant Effect of Ketamine?: A 5-Year Follow-up Study

Psilocybin for End-of-Life Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Classic Psychedelic Use and Mechanisms of Mental Health: Exploring the Mediating Roles of Spirituality and Emotion Processing on Symptoms of Anxiety, Depressed Mood, and Disordered Eating in a Community Sample

Psychedelic mushrooms in the USA: Knowledge, patterns of use and association with health outcomes

5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) used in a naturalistic group setting is associated with unintended improvements in depression and anxiety

Assessing the effects of methodological differences on outcomes in the use of psychedelics in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Treatment of a Complex Personality Disorder Using Repeated Doses of LSD-A Case Report on Significant Improvements in the Absence of Acute Drug Effects

LSD-assisted psychotherapy and the human encounter with death

Efficacy of ketamine for major depressive episodes at 2, 4, and 6-weeks post-treatment: A meta-analysis

Ketamine as an adjunctive therapy for major depression - a randomised controlled pragmatic pilot trial (Karma-Dep Trial)

Ketamine and Other NMDA Antagonists: Early Clinical Trials and Possible Mechanisms in Depression

A Single Administration of the Atypical Psychedelic Ibogaine or Its Metabolite Noribogaine Induces an Antidepressant-Like Effect in Rats

Ketamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar depression: A review of the literature

Ketamine Treatment for Depression in Patients With a History of Psychosis or Current Psychotic Symptoms: A Systematic Review

Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy: A Review of a Novel Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders

Towards new mechanisms: an update on therapeutics for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder

Meta-analysis of short- and mid-term efficacy of ketamine in unipolar and bipolar depression

New Treatment Strategies of Depression: Based on Mechanisms Related to Neuroplasticity

A Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials of Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy

Harmine produces antidepressant-like effects via restoration of astrocytic functions

Case Report: Ketamine for Pain and Depression in Advanced Cancer

Population scale data reveals the antidepressant effects of ketamine and other therapeutics approved for non-psychiatric indications

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Sustain the Antidepressant Effects of Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial

R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

Prospective examination of synthetic 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhalation: effects on salivary IL-6, cortisol levels, affect, and non-judgment

Development and Evaluation of a Therapist Training Program for Psilocybin Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Clinical Research

Oxytocin-dependent reopening of a social reward learning critical period with MDMA

Natural Psychoplastogens As Antidepressant Agents

Intranasal Ketamine for Depression in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trials

Ketamine interactions with gut-microbiota in rats: relevance to its antidepressant and anti-inflammatory properties

Acute effects of ayahuasca in a juvenile non-human primate model of depression

Chronic, Intermittent Microdoses of the Psychedelic N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Produce Positive Effects on Mood and Anxiety in Rodents

A phase 2 trial of inhaled nitrous oxide for treatment-resistant major depression

Sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine exert antidepressant-like effects and upregulate the expression of glutamate transporters in the hippocampus of rats

A unique natural selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, salvinorin A, and its roles in human therapeutics

Efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted treatment for major depressive disorder: Prospective 12-month follow-up

Increased low-frequency brain responses to music after psilocybin therapy for depression

Use of repeated intravenous ketamine therapy in treatment-resistant bipolar depression with suicidal behaviour: a case report from Spain

Repeated intranasal ketamine for treatment-resistant depression – the way to go? Results from a pilot randomised controlled trial

Effects of N, N-Dimethyltryptamine on Rat Behaviors Relevant to Anxiety and Depression

Psychedelic Medicines in Major Depression: Progress and Future Challenges

Cross-sectional associations between lifetime use of psychedelic drugs and psychometric measures during the COVID-19 confinement: A transcultural study

Improving cognitive functioning in major depressive disorder with psychedelics: a dimensional approach

Rapid antidepressant effect of S-ketamine in schizophrenia

Predictors of Response to Ketamine in Treatment Resistant Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder

Features of dissociation differentially predict antidepressant response to ketamine in treatment-resistant depression

Ketamine administration in depressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The role of ketamine in treatment-resistant depression: a systematic review

Side-effects associated with ketamine use in depression: a systematic review

Changes in self-rumination and self-compassion mediate the effect of psychedelic experiences on decreases in depression, anxiety, and stress

Ketamine for Depression, 4: In What Dose, at What Rate, by What Route, for How Long, and at What Frequency?

Neurocognitive Effects of Ketamine and Association with Antidepressant Response in Individuals with Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Ketamine and other potential glutamate antidepressants

Improvement in suicidal ideation after ketamine infusion: Relationship to reductions in depression and anxiety

Acute antidepressant effect of ayahuasca in juvenile non-human primate model of depression

Ketamine Use for Suicidal Ideation in the General Hospital: Case Report and Short Review

Nitrous Oxide for Treatment-Resistant Major Depression: a Proof-of-Concept Trial

Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide in an animal model of depression: Normalisation of learning behaviour and hippocampal serotonin 5-HT2 signalling

Psychedelic Drugs in Biomedicine

Ketamine: Promising Path or False Prophecy in the Development of Novel Therapeutics for Mood Disorders?

Ketamine and Rapid-Acting Antidepressants: A Window into a New Neurobiology for Mood Disorder Therapeutics

Psychedelic drug assisted psychotherapy in patients with terminal cancer

The anterior cingulate cortex as a key locus of ketamine’s antidepressant action

Clonazepam treatment of lysergic acid diethylamide-induced hallucinogen persisting perception disorder with anxiety features

A Physician’s Attempt to Self-Medicate Bipolar Depression with N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)

Exploring the therapeutic potential of Ayahuasca: acute intake increases mindfulness-related capacities

Low-dose ketamine for treatment resistant depression in an academic clinical practice setting

A continuum hypothesis of psychotomimetic rapid antidepressants

Psychedelics in the treatment of unipolar mood disorders: a systematic review

Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of serotonergic psychedelics for the management of mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders: a systematic review of systematic reviews

Post-Psychedelic Reductions in Experiential Avoidance Are Associated With Decreases in Depression Severity and Suicidal Ideation

Psychological flexibility mediates the relations between acute psychedelic effects and subjective decreases in depression and anxiety

Clinical predictors of depressive symptom remission and response after racemic ketamine and esketamine infusion in treatment-resistant depression

Relationships between reduction in symptoms and restoration of function and wellbeing: Outcomes of the Oral Ketamine Trial on Suicidality (OKTOS)

Real-world effectiveness of repeated ketamine infusions for treatment resistant depression during the COVID-19 pandemic

Do sleep changes mediate the anti-depressive and anti-suicidal response of intravenous ketamine in treatment-resistant depression?

Long-Term Efficacy of Combination Therapy of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation with Ketamine for Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression

Distinct trajectories of antidepressant response to intravenous ketamine

Acute cognitive effects of single-dose intravenous ketamine in major depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder

Plasma BDNF concentrations and the antidepressant effects of six ketamine infusions in unipolar and bipolar depression

Predictive value of heart rate in treatment of major depression with ketamine in two controlled trials

Prolonged ketamine infusion modulates limbic connectivity and induces sustained remission of treatment-resistant depression

Ketamine treatment for individuals with treatment-resistant depression: longitudinal qualitative interview study of patient experiences

Comparison of Rapid Antidepressant and Antisuicidal Effects of Intramuscular Ketamine, Oral Ketamine, and Electroconvulsive Therapy in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

Ketamine improves short-term plasticity in depression by enhancing sensitivity to prediction errors

Ketamine plus propofol-electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) transiently improves the antidepressant effects and the associated brain functional alterations in patients with propofol-ECT-resistant depression

Antidepressant and neurocognitive effects of serial ketamine administration versus ECT in depressed patients

Intravenous arketamine for treatment-resistant depression: open-label pilot study

A rapid positive influence of S-ketamine on the anxiety of patients in palliative care: a retrospective pilot study

The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Intravenous Ketamine Outcomes for Adult Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression

Combination therapy with transcranial magnetic stimulation and ketamine for treatment-resistant depression: A long-term retrospective review of clinical use

Investigation of medical effect of multiple ketamine infusions on patients with major depressive disorder

Association of Combined Naltrexone and Ketamine With Depressive Symptoms in a Case series of Patients With Depression and Alcohol Use Disorder

Intravenous Ketamine for Adolescents with Treatment-Resistant Depression: An Open-Label Study

Neurocognitive effects of six ketamine infusions and the association with antidepressant response in patients with unipolar and bipolar depression

Rapid effectiveness of intravenous ketamine for ultraresistant depression in a clinical setting and evidence for baseline anhedonia and bipolarity as clinical predictors of effectiveness

Acute and longer-term outcomes using ketamine as a clinical treatment at the Yale psychiatric hospital

Blood pressure safety of subanesthetic ketamine for depression: A report on 684 infusions

Antisuicidal Response Following Ketamine Infusion Is Associated With Decreased Nighttime Wakefulness in Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder

Low-dose ketamine for treatment resistant depression in an academic clinical practice setting

Rapid infusion of esketamine for unipolar and bipolar depression: a retrospective chart review

Ketamine versus midazolam in bipolar depression with suicidal thoughts: A pilot midazolam-controlled randomized clinical trial

Ketamine’s dose-related effects on anxiety symptoms in patients with treatment refractory anxiety disorders

Altered peripheral immune profiles in treatment-resistant depression: response to ketamine and prediction of treatment outcome

The Nucleus Accumbens and Ketamine Treatment in Major Depressive Disorder

Ketamine Treatment and Global Brain Connectivity in Major Depression

Neural correlates of change in major depressive disorder anhedonia following open-label ketamine

Ketamine safety and tolerability in clinical trials for treatment-resistant depression

Regulation of neural responses to emotion perception by ketamine in individuals with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder

Rapid and Longer-Term Antidepressant Effects of Repeated Ketamine Infusions in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression

Esketamine Nasal Spray for the Rapid Reduction of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder With Acute Suicidal Ideation or Behavior

The effect of esketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression with and without comorbid anxiety symptoms or disorder

Treatment Response With Esketamine Nasal Spray Plus an Oral Antidepressant in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Depression Without Evidence of Early Response: A Pooled Post Hoc Analysis of the TRANSFORM Studies

Ketamine and Attentional Bias Toward Emotional Faces: Dynamic Causal Modeling of Magnetoencephalographic Connectivity in Treatment-Resistant Depression

Ketamine Modulates the Neural Correlates of Reward Processing in Unmedicated Patients in Remission from Depression

Neurocognitive aspects of ketamine and esketamine on subjects with treatment-resistant depression: A comparative, randomized and double-blind study

Low-dose ketamine does not improve the speed of recovery from depression in electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized controlled trial

A qualitative and quantitative account of patient’s experiences of ketamine and its antidepressant properties

Single, Fixed-Dose Intranasal Ketamine for Alleviation of Acute Suicidal Ideation. An Emergency Department, Trans-Diagnostic Approach: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Proof-of-Concept Trial

Esketamine Nasal Spray for Rapid Reduction of Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder Who Have Active Suicide Ideation With Intent: Results of a Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized Study (ASPIRE II)

The effect of ketamine on preventing postpartum depression

A randomized, double-blind, active placebo-controlled study of efficacy, safety, and durability of repeated vs single subanesthetic ketamine for treatment-resistant depression

Esketamine Nasal Spray for Rapid Reduction of Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms in Patients Who Have Active Suicidal Ideation With Intent: Double-Blind, Randomized Study (ASPIRE I)

Modulation of the antidepressant effects of ketamine by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin

Attenuation of antidepressant and antisuicidal effects of ketamine by opioid receptor antagonism

Disentangling the association of depression on the anti-fatigue effects of ketamine

Effects of Ketamine on Brain Activity During Emotional Processing: Differential Findings in Depressed Versus Healthy Control Participants

Repeat-dose ketamine augmentation for treatment-resistant depression with chronic suicidal ideation: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial

Efficacy of intravenous ketamine treatment in anxious versus nonanxious unipolar treatment‐resistant depression

Dose-Related Effects of Adjunctive Ketamine in Taiwanese Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression

Ketamine normalizes brain activity during emotionally valenced attentional processing in depression

Ketamine has distinct electrophysiological and behavioral effects in depressed and healthy subjects

Prefrontal Connectivity and Glutamate Transmission: Relevance to Depression Pathophysiology and Ketamine Treatment

Trauma Interventions using Mindfulness Based Extinction and Reconsolidation (TIMBER) psychotherapy prolong the therapeutic effects of single ketamine infusion on post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial

A Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Sub-Dissociative Dose Ketamine Pilot Study in the Treatment of Acute Depression and Suicidality in a Military Emergency Department Setting

Efficacy and safety of oral ketamine versus diclofenac to alleviate mild to moderate depression in chronic pain patients: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

Mood and neuropsychological effects of different doses of ketamine in electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant depression

A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Frequency Study of Intravenous Ketamine in Patients With Treatment-Resistant Depression

The effects of low-dose ketamine on the prefrontal cortex and amygdala in treatment-resistant depression: A randomized controlled study

Assessing measures of suicidal ideation in clinical trials with a rapid-acting antidepressant

A single infusion of ketamine improves depression scores in patients with anxious bipolar depression

Efficacy of Intravenous Ketamine for Treatment of Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Antidepressant Efficacy of Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression: A Two-Site Randomized Controlled Trial

Relationship of ketamine’s antidepressant and psychotomimetic effects in unipolar depression

Replication of Ketamine’s Antidepressant Efficacy in Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Controlled Add-On Trial

Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients

A placebo-controlled study of the effects of ayahuasca, set and setting on mental health of participants in ayahuasca group retreats

The Impact of Ayahuasca on Suicidality: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Rapid antidepressant effects of the psychedelic ayahuasca in treatment-resistant depression: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

A Single Dose Of Ayahuasca Modulates Salivary Cortisol In Treatment-Resistant Depression

Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members

Sub-acute and long-term effects of ayahuasca on mental health and well-being in healthy ceremony attendants: A replication study

Ceremonial Ayahuasca in Amazonian Retreats—Mental Health and Epigenetic Outcomes From a Six-Month Naturalistic Study

Symptom specificity of ayahuasca's effect on depressive symptoms

Rapid and sustained decreases in suicidality following a single dose of ayahuasca among individuals with recurrent major depressive disorder: results from an open-label trial

Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression a SPECT study

Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report

A single inhalation of vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in a naturalistic setting is related to sustained enhancement of satisfaction with life, mindfulness-related capacities, and a decrement of psychopathological symptoms

Decreased brain modularity after psilocybin therapy for depression

A quantitative exploration of the relationships between regular yoga practice, microdosing psychedelics, wellbeing and personality variables

Effects of Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy on Major Depressive Disorder

Therapeutic use of classic psychedelics to treat cancer-related psychiatric distress

Effects of psilocybin therapy on personality structure

The hidden therapist: evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy

Increased nature relatedness and decreased authoritarian political views after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression

Increased amygdala responses to emotional faces after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression

Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: six-month follow-up

Psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression: fMRI-measured brain mechanisms

Patients’ accounts of increased “Connectedness” and “Acceptance” after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression

Psilocybin with psychological support for treatment-resistant depression: an open-label feasibility study

Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression

The Effects of Daytime Psilocybin Administration on Sleep: Implications for Antidepressant Action

Psilocybin biases facial recognition, goal-directed behavior, and mood state toward positive relative to negative emotions through different serotonergic subreceptors

Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer

Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized controlled trial

Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer