Psychedelic Research Papers

Classic Psychedelics in Addiction Treatment: The Case for Psilocybin in Tobacco Smoking Cessation
This book chapter (2022) reviews the use of psilocybin in the treatment of addiction with a specific focus on tobacco use disorder (TUD). After exploring the historical use of psychedelics to treat addiction, modern research on the topic is reviewed. The anti-addiction properties of psychedelics differ but are consistent with the notion that the persisting positive behaviour change prompted by psychedelic therapy is due to the amplification of psychotherapeutic processes. Further research with understudied and novel psychedelic compounds could yield positive results.
Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
June 2022
Cited by 0
Significance of mammalian N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT): A 60-year-old debate
This review (2022) explores the role of endogenously produced DMT in mammalian physiology by exploring 60 years of research. The biosynthesis of DMT, its receptor activity, and regulation are discussed while key experiments are used to prove what role DMT plays in the body such as a neurotransmitter and/or a hormone.
Journal of Psychopharmacology
June 2022
Cited by 0
Nootropic effects of LSD: Behavioral, molecular and computational evidence
This preprint (2022) assessed the effects of LSD on metabolic pathways associated with neural plasticity, to gain insight into the relationship between neural plasticity, ageing and LSD-induced cognitive gains in both humans (n=25) and rodents. LSD treatment in humans (50μg) enhanced performance in a visuospatial memory task and in a novel object recognition task in rodents indicating that LSD has nootropic effects.
Experimental Neurology
June 2022
Cited by 0
MDMA for the Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia
This paper (2022) makes the case for using MDMA to treat symptoms of schizophrenia and proposes possible mechanisms of action.
Journal of Clinical Medicine
June 2022
Real-world effectiveness of ketamine in treatment-resistant depression: A systematic review & meta-analysis
This meta-analysis (2022) assessed the effectiveness of ketamine for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) using real-world data. While the mean antidepressant effect of ketamine was found to be significant, there are high levels of variability between patients. Treatment effects were found to be similar following repeated treatments.
Journal of Psychiatric Research
June 2022
Cited by 0
Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy—A Systematic Review of Associated Psychological Interventions
This review (2022) explored the use of structured associated psychotherapeutic interventions in psychedelic clinical research to construct a picture of what models of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy are currently adopted in such research. Common principles, points of divergence and future directions for such interventions are also discussed.
Frontiers in Psychology
June 2022
Cited by 0
Motives for the use of serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review
This paper (2022) reviews the motives for serotonergic psychedelic (SP) use that have been assessed in medical, psychological, sociological and ethnological research. The most common motive for SP use was the desire to expand awareness (78% of included studies), followed by coping (67%) and enhancement (57%) motives. In terms of harm reduction, these findings suggest harm-reduction services could focus on providing non-pharmacological ways of fulfilling an expansion motive.
Drug and Alcohol Review
June 2022
Psychedelic Microdosing, Mindfulness, and Anxiety: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Study
This cross-sectional study assessed the relationship between microdosing and trait anxiety through an online survey with current microdosers (n = 186), former microdosers (n = 77) and microdosing-naïve controls (n = 234). Current and former microdosers reported lower STAI-T scores compared to microdosing-naïve controls while associations of current and former microdosing with trait anxiety were mediated by trait mindfulness. All associations between microdosing and STAI-T scores became non-significant when participants with previous macrodose experience (n = 386) were excluded.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
June 2022
Cited by 0
A Systematic Review of Neurocognitive Effects of Subanesthetic Doses of Intravenous Ketamine in Major Depressive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Healthy Population
This paper (2022) reviews the neurocognitive effects of subanesthetic doses of intravenous ketamine in pharmacological studies among healthy subjects and patients with PTSD or depression. No significant impairment in cognitive function was found in patients with depression and possible in those with PTSD. In contrast, immediate cognitive dysfunction was found in healthy subjects.
Clinical Drug Investigation
June 2022
Cited by 0
Don’t Be Afraid, Try to Meditate- Potential Effects on Neural Activity and Connectivity of Psilocybin-Assisted Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Social Anxiety Disorder: A systematic review
This systematic review (2022) explores the potential mechanisms by which combined psilocybin and mindfulness treatment could adjust anomalous neural activity underlying social anxiety disorder (SAD) and exert therapeutic effects. Proposed mechanisms include changes in cognitive processes like biased attention to threats linked to SAD by modulating connectivity of the salience network and more.
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
June 2022
Cited by 0
Language Models Learn Sentiment and Substance from 11,000 Psychoactive Experiences
This preprint (2022) assessed 11,821 publicly available natural language testimonials from Erowid using three machine learning models to help quantify changes in conscious awareness optimal for treatment by psychedelics. Together, the models elucidate a neurobiologically-informed, temporally-sensitive portrait of drug-induced subjective experiences. MDMA was singularly linked to mid-experience swelling of "Love", potent psychedelics like DMT, and 5-MeO-DMT were associated with "Mystical Experiences", while other tryptamines were associated with an emotional constellation of "Surprise", "Curiosity" and "Realization."
Biorxiv
June 2022
Cited by 0
Self-Actualization and the Integration of Psychedelic Experience: The Mediating Role of Perceived Benefits to Narrative Self-Functioning
This survey study (n=750) draws upon the eudaimonic perspective of well-being to investigate the relationship between the extent of post-psychedelic integration and optimal well-being. Results indicated that perceived benefits to narrative self-functioning is one pathway through which integration of psychedelic experience may promote optimal well-being for both clinical and non-clinical populations. Integration techniques that are more self-referential in nature indirectly relate to optimal well-being via perceived benefits.
Journal of Humanistic Psychology
June 2022
Cited by 0
Exploratory study of the dose-related safety, tolerability, and efficacy of dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in healthy volunteers and major depressive disorder
This open-label study assessed the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of intravenous DMT (70mg/70kg followed by 210mg/70kg) in healthy participants (n=3) and participants with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (n=7). DMT was well-tolerated in both groups while depression scores decreased significantly the day after receiving the high dose. Adverse events were mostly mild and were resolved within 20-30 minutes of injection.
Neuropsychopharmacology
June 2022
Application of machine learning and complex network measures to an EEG dataset from ayahuasca experiments
This preprint (2022) used an EEG dataset from a study involving ayahuasca to investigate the ability of machine learning and complex network measurements to automatically detect changes in brain activity. After applying machine learning at three different levels of data abstraction, machine learning proved to be consistent with the current literature and showed the highest accuracy in detecting the correlation of the EEG time series.
MedRvix
June 2022
Cited by 0
The Acute Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on Emotional Episodic Memory Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval
This preprint (2022) explores the neural mechanism underlying the effects psychoactive drugs such as MDMA have on processing emotional episodic memories. One process discussed is the increased retrieval of false memories under the influence of MDMA. Considerations for future work and how these effects may contribute to drug use and abuse are discussed.
Psyarxiv
June 2022
Models of Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy: A Contemporary Assessment and an Introduction to EMBARK, a Transdiagnostic, Trans-Drug Model
This paper (2022) introduced the EMBARK model for the provision of supportive psychotherapy in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP) clinical trials. EMBARK was designed to overcome challenges that prior models have had in conceptualizing therapeutic change in psychedelic treatment. The model incorporates elements of non-psychedelic evidence-based therapies, therapists’ prior skills and clinical orientations, among other things, to determine specific factors that contribute to treatment outcomes.
Frontiers in Psychology
June 2022
Cited by 0
Postpartum depression: A role for psychedelics?
This review (2022) makes the case for using psychedelics in the treatment of postpartum depression (PDD). The effects we see in other clinical trials with psychedelics may translate to PPD such as 'reconnection.' This effect in PPD, by fostering a sense of ‘reconnection’ for the mother, may allow for improved mood and maternal sensitivity towards the infant, which can positively impact maternal role gratification and the mother-infant relationship.
Journal of Psychopharmacology
May 2022
Cited by 0
5-HT2CR Is as Important as 5-HT2AR in Inducing Hallucinogenic Effects in Serotonergic Compounds
This rodent study (2022) shows that the activation of serotonin receptors (5-HT) by mescaline derivatives via 5-HT2CR, alone or in concert with 5-HT2AR, produces comparable hallucinogenic effects to activation via divergent 5-HT2CR- and/or 5-HT2AR signalling pathways. Given that many believe 5-HT2AR activation is the route through which psychedelics exert their effects, these findings show that 5-HT2CR is as important as 5-HT2AR in inducing these effects.
SSRN
May 2022
Cited by 0
Group VR experiences can produce ego attenuation and connectedness comparable to psychedelics
This paper (2022) introduces "Isness-distributed" (Isness-D), a VR framework which harnesses the unique affordances of distributed multi-person VR to blur conventional self-other boundaries. To evaluate Isness-D,  the results of 4 different self-report scales previously applied to analyze subjective psychedelic drug phenomenology were analysed. Across all four scales, the Isness-D scores were statistically indistinguishable from recently published studies with psychedelic drugs highlighting the power of VR to develop self-transcendent experiences.
Scientific Reports
May 2022
Cited by 0
Developing a new national MDMA policy: Results of a multi-decision multi-criterion decision analysis (MD-MCDA)
In this preprint (2022), eighteen experts reformulated the Dutch MDMA policy using multi-decision multi-criterion decision analysis (MD-MCDA) with a science-based approach. The optimal policy model was defined by a set of 22 policy instrument options. Implementation of the optimal policy model, includes regulated MDMA sales, decreases health harms, MDMA-related organised crime, and environmental damage, as well as, increases state revenues, and quality of MDMA products and user information.
OSF Preprints
May 2022
Cited by 0
Ayahuasca and Public Health II: Health Status in a Large Sample of Ayahuasca-Ceremony Participants in the Netherlands
This survey study (n=377) assessed the association regular ayahuasca ceremony participation has with a person's health. Compared to normative Dutch data, regular participants in ayahuasca ceremonies showed better general well-being, fewer lifestyle-related diseases, more physical activity, and a more balanced diet. Ceremony attendees also used less alcohol over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic but they did use more illegal drugs than the general population.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
May 2022
Cited by 0
Psychedelic Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder
This paper (2022) makes the case for using psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP) for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Preliminary evidence suggests the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of psychedelic treatments in disorders that share similar psychopathological mechanisms with BDD. A Phase II study is suggested with thoughts on how to proceed with this research.
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
May 2022
Cited by 0
On the fallibility of placebo control and how to address it: a case study in psychedelic microdosing
This preprint (2022) uses computational modelling to show that the combination of weak blinding and positive treatment expectancy can lead to activated expectancy bias (AEB), which is an uneven distribution of expectancy effects between the treatment arms due to patients recognizing their treatment allocation in psychedelic microdosing randomized controlled trials. The results demonstrate that a placebo control group is in itself not sufficient to control for expectancy effect and that placebo-controlled studies are more fallible than conventionally assumed.
Psyarxiv
May 2022
Cited by 0
Unique Effects of Sedatives, Dissociatives, Psychedelics, Stimulants, and Cannabinoids on Episodic Memory: A Review and Reanalysis of Acute Drug Effects on Recollection, Familiarity, and Metamemory
This preprint (2022) assessed the effects of different psychoactive drugs on episodic memory and cognition by reanalysing episodic memory confidence data from 10 previously published datasets. Sedatives, dissociatives, psychedelics, stimulants, and cannabinoids had unique patterns of effects on these mnemonic processes dependent on which phase of memory while all drugs at encoding, except stimulants impaired recollection, and sedatives, dissociatives, and cannabinoids at encoding impaired familiarity. Psychedelics at encoding tended to enhance familiarity and did not impact metamemory.
Biorxiv
May 2022
Cited by 0
Psychedelics and Psychotherapy: Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches as Default
This paper (2022) explores historical and sociological influences on current psychedelic administration in mainstream European and American clinical research settings. It considers these dynamics in relation to cognitive-behavioural therapies (CBT) and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). The paper advocates for CBTs for several reasons, such as the large base of empirical evidence they have. Several types of CBTs are discussed and how they can be used to inform the preparation, session, and integration phases of psychedelic psychotherapy.
Frontiers in Psychology
May 2022
Cited by 0
New insights into the clinical and nonclinical effects of psychedelic substances: An integrative review
This review (2022) explores the potential of psychedelics in treating mental health disorders, their short- and long-term effects on recreational users, and the neurological and cognitive processes responsible for their effects using the most up to date research. The positive findings of psilocybin for depression (MDD) and anxiety are highlighted. The mystical experience (MEQ) also plays a large role, but individual differences (for whom does it work) are still not well examined.
European Psychologist
May 2022
Cited by 0
The role of extracellular serotonin and MDMA in the sensitizing effects of MDMA
This rodent study (2022) assessed the impact repeated high-dose exposure to MDMA has on markers of serotonin neurotransmission and if this is related to the sensitizing effects of MDMA. The results suggest that the sensitizing effects of MDMA are not due to changes in MDMA-produced synaptic overflow of serotonin but are more likely related to alterations in serotonin receptor mechanisms and/or dopamine neurotransmission.
Behavioural Brain Research
May 2022
Cited by 0
Incilius alvarius cell-based synthesis of 5-MeO-DMT
This preprint (2022) describes the synthesis of 5-MeO-DMT from a cell line from tissue obtained from the parotoid gland (saliva) of the Sonoran Desert toad (Incilius alvarius). The samples were successfully tested for 5-MeO-DMT but may also contain other 'entourage' compounds. Such methods help to relieve ecological pressures due to the increasing demand for 5-MeO-DMT.
Biorxiv
May 2022
Cited by 0
The Psychedelic Integration Scales: Tools for Measuring Psychedelic Integration Behaviors and Experiences
This theory-building paper (2022) describes the development and initial validation of the Integration Engagement Scale (IES) to capture positive behavioural engagement with integration and the Experienced Integration Scale (EIS) to capture internal aspects of feeling integrated following a psychedelic experience. The scales were designed to inform the creation of enhanced integration support and the initial data indicates the scales are valid and reliable.
Frontiers in Psychology
May 2022
Cited by 0
Cognitive Function Mediates the Anti-suicide Effect of Repeated Intravenous Ketamine in Adult Patients With Suicidal Ideation
This study (n=86) assessed the effects of six infusions of ketamine (35mg/70kg) over 2 weeks on suicidality in patients with depression. Next to the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery was also used. MADRS total score and processing speed (but not other cognitive domains) were significant partial mediators of the association between ketamine treatment and improvements in suicidal ideation.
Frontiers in Psychiatry
May 2022
Cited by 0

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