million people affected worldwide

Current Treatments

Psychedelic research currently is in Not Applicable

Psychedelic's are allowing neuroscientists to peer into the brain like never before. Thanks to modern neuroimaging techniques, scientists are not only unearthing the mechanisms by which psychedelics act on the brain and their subsequent therapeutic effects, but they are also enhancing our understanding of human consciousness.

Key Insights

  • Modern imaging techniques (fMRI, EEG) help us understand through which mechanisms psychedelics have their influence on the brain. This helps us understand both the acute (psychedelic) effects, and how they can lead to long-term positive outcomes.
  • Through the disruption of abhorrant mechanisms, for instance activity in the Default Mode Network (DMN), psychedelics can have therapeutic effects that are evident for up to years later. Several encompassing theories such as the entropic brain and its descendant REBUS help explain how this can happen at different levels.
  • Neuroscience can help validate how psychedelics work and help regulators make choices about the safety (and efficacy) of psychedelics.

Author: Iain Burgess is the lead researcher at Blossom. He studied Global Health (MSc) and Physiology (BSc) and has researched the various scientific, societal, cultural and political dynamics that have shaped our understanding of psychedelics throughout history.

What is Neuroscience?

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the body’s nervous system. The nervous system is comprised of a complex network of nerves and cells that are tasked with coordinating actions and sensory information by relaying signals to and from different parts of the body. Originating in the brain, the nervous system controls one’s movements, thoughts and responses to both internal and external stimuli. Furthermore, the nervous system helps to control all other body systems.

The nervous system is subdivided into two main systems: the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. The central nervous system is comprised of the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that branch out from the spinal cord which connect other parts of the body to the central nervous system. Importantly, the brain is the main organ of the nervous system, acting as the body’s command centre.

The brain is a complex organ that controls thought, memory, emotion, touch, motor skills, vision, breathing, temperature, hunger and every process that regulates our body. The brain works by receiving and sending both chemical and electrical signals throughout the body as necessary. Each different region of the brain is responsible for controlling other bodily functions. For example, the hippocampus supports memory, learning and perception of space, whereas the amygdala regulates emotion and memory and is associated with the brain’s reward system [1].

Given the central role the brain plays in almost every aspect of our bodily functions, scientists are always seeking to better our understanding of this complex organ. To do so, scientists are always searching for new tools to peer deeper into the brain. Now, however, scientists are successfully combining modern technologies like MRI machines and EEGs with a class of psychoactive drugs that have been used throughout history, psychedelics.

Psychedelics and Neuroscience

Psychedelics are proving to be valuable tools in the realm of neuroscience. By utilizing modern technology and techniques, scientists are not only unearthing how psychedelics have the ability to produce such profound effects in the brain, but they are also helping us to better understand how psychedelics exert their therapeutic effects.

However, given that this research is in its infancy, much of the exact science remains speculative. As we progress through the psychedelic renaissance, scientists are gradually transforming these speculations into solid scientific evidence. For instance, scientists are now fairly certain that classical/serotonergic psychedelics exert their therapeutic effects, in part, by altering the brains’ default mode network (DMN).

The DMN is a network of interacting brain regions that is active when a person is not focused on the outside world, when the brain is at wakeful rest, such as during daydreaming and mind-wandering [2]. The collection of pathways within the DMN govern our self-image, our autobiographical memories, and our deeply ingrained beliefs and thought patterns [3].

Abnormal functioning of the DMN has been implicated in numerous mental disorders. For example, in depression, the DMN has been shown to be hyperactive using functional MRI (fMRI). Hyperactivity in this region can lead to negative rumination, the process of continuously thinking about the same thoughts [4]. fMRI techniques have shown that psychedelics have the ability to disrupt these engrained patterns of rumination within the DMN.

By stimulating 5-HT2A receptors, psychedelics like psilocybin downplay hyperactivity in the DMN which in turn, allows patients to work through their issues with more ease. Additionally, it appears that activation of these receptors can have long-lasting effects on brain function which enhances therapeutic outcomes [5]. Though this view is held by many researchers, this isn’t the only mechanism at work nor should be taken as being solely responsible as a causal mechanism of psychedelics’ therapeutic effects.

Modern psychedelic neuroscience research

The research team at Imperial College London’s Centre for Psychedelic Research have been using neuroimaging techniques like fMRI to explore the effects of psychedelics on the brain for the past decade. Led by Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris, the team at Imperial have used functional neuroimaging to examine the brain under the influence of psilocybin, LSD, MDMA and DMT, as well as conducting various clinical trials into the effects psychedelics have on mental disorders.

In a 2014 seminal paper, Carhart-Harris and colleagues proposed a theory of conscious states in the brain informed by neuroimaging studies of psychedelic drugs; entropic brain theory. In short, by incorporating principles of physics, neurobiology and psychoanalysis, the theory proposes that there are two different forms of cognition that the researchers term the ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ states.

The secondary state is our normal waking state, in which we try to limit our surprise and uncertainty about the world, or limit ‘high entropy.’ In ‘primary states,’ such as the psychedelic state, the downregulation of the DMN creates less entropy and in turn, causes the brain to enter a more critical state. In this more critical state, normal patterns of brain activity, such as those associated with mental disorders, are broken down which allows people to gain therapeutic benefit from the psychedelic experience.

Carhart-Harris and colleagues revisited their entropic brain theory in a 2018 paper, offering further evidence for this hypothesis. In 2019, Carhart-Harris combined this entropy hypothesis with a leading model of global brain function, hierarchical predictive coding. Working with Karl J. Friston, the pair termed this formulation ‘relaxed beliefs under psychedelics (REBUS) and the anarchic brain.’

The Centre for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research at Johns Hopkins University is another research group that is using psychedelics to delve into human consciousness. The centre’s director Dr. Roland Griffiths, and associate director Dr. Matthew Johnson, are two of the biggest names in the world of psychedelics.

In 2006, Griffiths and colleagues published one of the first research papers since the blanket ban on psychedelic research in the 1970s. Not only did they find that psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences, but these findings were also associated with long-lasting positive changes in people’s mood, attitudes and behaviour [6].

The findings from this study had neuroscientists across the globe wondering what the nature of these mystical experiences is and how do they elicit positive changes in people’s behaviour. In 2015, the team at Johns Hopkins were able to further validate their findings by revising the Mystical Experience Questionnaire which was developed by Walter Pahnke during the first wave of psychedelic research.

Dr. Fredrick Barrett has led numerous neuroimaging studies at Johns Hopkins investigating the effects psychedelics have on the brain. Barrett and colleagues found there to be lower functional connectivity within the DMN in trial participants who received a high dose of psilocybin. Changes in brain function were also present one day after their psilocybin experience [7].

Interestingly, using neuroimaging techniques, Barrett and colleagues also showed that serotonin receptor (5-HT2RA) signalling is responsible for the neural changes that occur in response to music when a person is under the influence of LSD [8].

More research centres exploring the effects psychedelics have on the brain, like those at Imperial and Johns Hopkins, are emerging as we progress through this third wave of psychedelic research.

A team at the University of California Davis showed that psychedelics promote structural and functional neuroplasticity in both in vitro and in vivo models [9]. Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s ability to modify, change, and adapt both structure and function throughout life and in response to experience and therefore, the aforementioned findings could be beneficial for mental disorders.

In March 2021, the University of California San Francisco launched The Neuroscape Psychedelic Division. Led by Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris, the team aim to investigate the positive influence of psychedelics on long-term neuroplasticity and neural network dynamics in healthy human research participants using various neuroimaging techniques.

Working with Harvard University, Massachusetts General Hospital recently opened its Center for the Neuroscience of Psychedelics to better understand how psychedelics enhance the brain’s capacity for change, optimize current treatments and create new treatments for mental illness.

Understanding the neuronal basis of how psychedelics affect the brain is essential for realizing the therapeutic potential of psychedelics. Findings from such research not only inform scientists but also regulatory bodies who are tasked with determining the safety and efficacy of psychedelic treatment models so that they can be brought to market.

References

1. Hopkins Medicine. (n.d). Brain Anatomy and How the Brain Works. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Medicine. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/anatomy-of-the-brain

2. Voelcker-Rehage, C., Nienmann, C., Hübner, L., Godde, B., & Winneke, A. (2016). Sports and Exercise Psychology Research: From Theory to Practice. Academic Press. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128036341000030

3. Buckner, R., Andrews-Hanna, J., & Schacter, D. (2008). The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18400922/

4. Sheline, Y., Barch, D., Price, J., Rundle, M., Snyder, A., Mintun, M., . . . Raichle, M. (2009). The default mode network and self-referential processes in depression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://www.pnas.org/content/106/6/1942

5. Nutt, D. (2019). Psychedelic drugs-a new era in psychiatry? Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 139-147.

6. Griffiths, R., Richards, W., McCann, U., & Jesse, R. (2006). Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology.

7. Barrett, F., Johnson, M., & Griffiths, R. (2017). Psilocybin in long-term meditators: Effects on default mode network functional connectivity and retrospective ratings of qualitative experience. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871616302988

8. Barrett, F., Preller, K., Herdener, M., Janata, P., & Vollenweider, F. (2020). Serotonin 2A Receptor Signaling Underlies LSD-induced Alteration of the Neural Response to Dynamic Changes in Music. Journal of Contextual Behavioural Science.

9. Ly, C., Greb, A., Cameron, L., Wong, J., Barragan, E., Wilson, P., . . . Olson, D. (2018). Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity. Cell Reports.

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Highlighted Institutes

These are the institutes, from companies to universities, who are working on Neuroscience.

McGill University

Psychedelic research is well underway at McGill University. At the Neurobiological Psychiatry Unit, researchers are assessing the effects of psychedelics at the behavioral, brain circuit, neuronal, and subcellular levels.

Johns Hopkins University

Johns Hopkins University (Medicine) is host to the Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research, which is one of the leading research institutes into psychedelics. The center is led by Roland Griffiths and Matthew Johnson.

Imperial College London

The Centre for Psychedelic Research studies the action (in the brain) and clinical use of psychedelics, with a focus on depression.

Harvard University

Harvard is working with Mass General and their team at the Center for the Neuroscience of Psychedelics. Harvard Law School recently launched their POPLAR initiative.

University of California San Francisco

At UCSF, there are two research teams dedicated to the study of psychedelics; the Neuroscape Psychedelic Division and the Translational Psychedelic Research Program.

Highlighted People

These are some of the best-known people, from researchers to entrepreneurs, working on Neuroscience.

Robin Carhart-Harris

Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris is the Founding Director of the Neuroscape Psychedelics Division at UCSF. Previously he led the Psychedelic group at Imperial College London.

Roland Griffiths

Roland R. Griffiths is one of the strongest voices in psychedelics research. With over 400 journal articles under his belt and as one of the first researchers in the psychedelics renaissance, he has been a vital part of the research community.

Frederick Barrett

Frederick Streeter Barrett is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and works at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research.

Matthew Johnson

Matthew Johnson is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. His research is concerned with addiction medicine, drug abuse, and drug dependence.

Linked Research Papers about Neuroscience

A narrative synthesis of research with 5-MeO-DMT

Production Options for Psilocybin: Making of the Magic

Effects of ketamine, dexmedetomidine and propofol anesthesia on emotional memory consolidation in rats: Consequences for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder

Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

Serotonergic psychedelic drugs LSD and psilocybin reduce the hierarchical differentiation of unimodal and transmodal cortex

Towards psychedelic apprenticeship: Developing a gentle touch for the mediation and validation of psychedelic-induced insights and revelations

Naturalistic Entheogenics: Précis of Philosophy of Psychedelics

Psilocybin induces spatially constrained alterations in thalamic functional organization and connectivity

Improvement of functional neurological disorder after administration of esketamine nasal spray: a case report

Mental health of a self-selected sample of psychedelic users and self-medication practices with psychedelics

Effective connectivity of functionally anticorrelated networks under LSD

Psychedelics and hypnosis: Commonalities and therapeutic implications

Oxytocin receptor gene variations and socio-emotional effects of MDMA: A pooled analysis of controlled studies in healthy subjects

A Multidisciplinary Hypothesis about Serotonergic Psychedelics. Is it Possible that a Portion of Brain Serotonin Comes From the Gut?

Psilocybin links binocular rivalry switch rate to attention and subjective arousal levels in humans

Spectral signatures of serotonergic psychedelics and glutamatergic dissociatives

Entactogens: How the Name for a Novel Class of Psychoactive Agents Originated

Increased low-frequency brain responses to music after psilocybin therapy for depression

Common neural signatures of psychedelics: frequency-specific energy changes and repertoire expansion revealed using connectome-harmonic decomposition

Mapping Pharmacologically-induced Functional Reorganisation onto the Brain’s Neurotransmitter Landscape

Replication and extension of a model predicting response to psilocybin

Serotonergic psychedelics LSD & psilocybin increase the fractal dimension of cortical brain activity in spatial and temporal domains

Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

Language Models Learn Sentiment and Substance from 11,000 Psychoactive Experiences

Decreased directed functional connectivity in the psychedelic state

Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin

On the Varieties of Conscious Experiences: Altered Beliefs Under Psychedelics (ALBUS)

Acute psychological effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA,“Ecstasy”) are attenuated by the serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram

Psilocybin in long-term meditators: Effects on default mode network functional connectivity and retrospective ratings of qualitative experience

Language as a Window Into the Altered State of Consciousness Elicited by Psychedelic Drugs

Classic and dissociative psychedelics induce similar hyper-synchronous states in the cognitive-limbic cortex-basal ganglia system

Brain serotonin 2A receptor binding predicts subjective temporal and mystical effects of psilocybin in healthy humans

Trips and Neurotransmitters: Discovering Principled Patterns across 6,850 Hallucinogenic Experiences

Seeing with the eyes shut: Neural basis of enhanced imagery following ayahuasca ingestion

Dreamlike effects of LSD on waking imagery in humans depend on serotonin 2A receptor activation

Phenomenology, Structure, and Dynamic of Psychedelic States

Ketamine accelerates fear extinction via mTORC1 signaling

LSD Increases Primary Process Thinking via Serotonin 2A Receptor Activation

LSD-stimulated behaviors in mice require β-arrestin 2 but not β-arrestin 1

Possible role of biochemiluminescent photons for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)-induced phosphenes and visual hallucinations

The kappa opioid receptor and the sleep of reason: Cortico-subcortical imbalance following salvinorin-A

Human behavioral pharmacology of psychedelics

Differential contributions of serotonergic and dopaminergic functional connectivity to the phenomenology of LSD

Rostral Anterior Cingulate Thickness Predicts the Emotional Psilocybin Experience

Psilocybin-Induced Mystical-Type Experiences are Related to Persisting Positive Effects: A Quantitative and Qualitative Report

LSD alters dynamic integration and segregation in the human brain

Sustained effects of single doses of classical psychedelics in humans

A Single Belief-Changing Psychedelic Experience Is Associated With Increased Attribution of Consciousness to Living and Non-living Entities

Psilocybin therapy increases cognitive and neural flexibility in patients with major depressive disorder

Psilocybin Combines Rapid Synaptogenic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects In Vitro

Models of Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy: A Contemporary Assessment and an Introduction to EMBARK, a Transdiagnostic, Trans-Drug Model

Improved colour blindness symptoms associated with recreational psychedelic use: Results from the Global Drug Survey 2017

Differences in personality, cognitive abilities, illicit drug use, and white matter structural integrity between hallucinogen users and matched controls

Hallucinogens

Brain dynamics predictive of response to psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression

Dissolving the self: Active inference, psychedelics, and ego-dissolution

Psilocin acutely disrupts sleep and affects local but not global sleep homeostasis in laboratory mice

Psilocybin-induced decrease in amygdala reactivity correlates with enhanced positive mood in healthy volunteers

An analog of psychedelics restores functional neural circuits disrupted by unpredictable stress

Pharmacodynamic interactions between ketamine and psychiatric medications used in the treatment of depression: a systematic review

Working with Weirdness: A Response to “Moving Past Mysticism in Psychedelic Science”

The role of extracellular serotonin and MDMA in the sensitizing effects of MDMA

New insights into the clinical and nonclinical effects of psychedelic substances: An integrative review.

Altered insula connectivity under MDMA

Acute pharmacological effects of 2C-B in humans: An observational study

LSD flattens the functional hierarchy of the human brain

Chemistry and Structure-Activity Relationships of Psychedelics

Dynamic reconfiguration of frequency-specific cortical coactivation patterns during psychedelic and anesthetized states induced by ketamine

Harmines inhibit cancer cell growth through coordinated activation of apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy

Acute effects of ketamine and esketamine on cognition in healthy subjects: A meta-analysis

Flashback: psychiatric experimentation with LSD in historical perspective

Magic Mushroom Use: A Qualitative Interview Study of Post-Trip Impacts and Strategies for Optimizing Experiences

Neural correlates of the DMT experience assessed via multivariate EEG

Do NMDA-R Antagonists Re-Create Patterns of Spontaneous Gamma-Band Activity in Schizophrenia? A Systematic Review and Perspective

Predictors and potentiators of psychedelic-occasioned mystical experiences

Signaling snapshots of a serotonin receptor activated by the prototypical psychedelic LSD

Ayahuasca in adolescence: a neuropsychological assessment

Lasting effects of a single psilocybin dose on resting-state functional connectivity in healthy individuals

Psychedelics and health behaviour change

Psilocybin-induced spiritual experiences and insightfulness are associated with synchronization of neuronal oscillations

Influence of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25) on Subjective Time

Noribogaine is a G-Protein Biased κ-Opioid Receptor Agonist

Self-Care Practices with Psychedelics – A Qualitative Study of Users’ Perspectives

Greater empathy in MDMA users

MDMA, cannabis, and cocaine produce acute dissociative symptoms

Neurochemical models of near-death experiences: A large-scale study based on the semantic similarity of written reports

Disintegrating and Reintegrating the Self – (In)Flexible Self-Models in Depersonalisation and Psychedelic Experiences

Trait Openness and serotonin 2A receptors in healthy volunteers: A positron emission tomography study

Family of Structurally Related Bioconjugates Yields Antibodies with Differential Selectivity against Ketamine and 6-Hydroxynorketamine

Effects of acute and repeated treatment with serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens on intracranial self-stimulation in rats

Characterizing thalamocortical (dys)connectivity following d-amphetamine, LSD, and MDMA administration

Psychedelic medicine: a re-emerging therapeutic paradigm

Awe: a putative mechanism underlying the effects of classic psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy

Classic Psychedelic Drugs: Update on Biological Mechanisms

Psilocybin disrupts sensory and higher order cognitive processing but not pre-attentive cognitive processing—study on P300 and mismatch negativity in healthy volunteers

Does psychedelic therapy have a transdiagnostic action and prophylactic potential?

Development of the Psychological Insight Questionnaire among a sample of people who have consumed psilocybin or LSD

Effect of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on reinforcement learning in humans

Looking for the Self: Phenomenology, Neurophysiology and Philosophical Significance of Drug-induced Ego Dissolution

Direct comparison of the acute subjective, emotional, autonomic, and endocrine effects of MDMA, methylphenidate, and modafinil in healthy subjects

Discovery of G Protein-Biased Antagonists against 5-HT7R

Neural mechanisms of imagery under psilocybin

Role of serotonin transporter and receptor gene variations in the acute effects of MDMA in healthy subjects

5-HT2CR Is as Important as 5-HT2AR in Inducing Hallucinogenic Effects in Serotonergic Compounds

The psychopharmacology of hallucinogens

Systemic enhancement of serotonin signaling reverses social deficits in multiple mouse models for ASD

Sex differences and serotonergic mechanisms in the behavioural effects of psilocin

Direct comparison of the acute effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects

Pharmacokinetics of Hoasca alkaloids in healthy humans

Depressive mood ratings are reduced by MDMA in female polydrug ecstasy users homozygous for the l-allele of the serotonin transporter

Harmine produces antidepressant-like effects via restoration of astrocytic functions

Biochemical Mechanisms Underlying Psychedelic-Induced Neuroplasticity

Participation in an indigenous Amazonian led ayahuasca retreat associated with increases in nature relatedness – a pilot study

MDMA-Induced Dissociative State not Mediated by the 5-HT2A Receptor

The Mechanisms of Psychedelic Visionary Experiences: Hypotheses from Evolutionary Psychology

Psychedelic effects of psilocybin correlate with serotonin 2A receptor occupancy and plasma psilocin levels

Dreams and psychedelics: neurophenomenological comparison and therapeutic implications

On Revelations and Revolutions: Drinking Ayahuasca Among Palestinians Under Israeli Occupation

Me, myself, bye: regional alterations in glutamate and the experience of ego dissolution with psilocybin

Effects of the 5-HT2A Agonist Psilocybin on Mismatch Negativity Generation and AX-Continuous Performance Task: Implications for the Neuropharmacology of Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

Psilocybin induces time-dependent changes in global functional connectivity: Psi-induced changes in brain connectivity

Neuroimaging of chronic MDMA (“ecstasy”) effects: A meta-analysis

Acute and subacute psychoactive effects of Kambô, the secretion of the Amazonian Giant Maki Frog (Phyllomedusa bicolor): retrospective reports

Receptor Interaction Profiles of 4-Alkoxy-3,5-Dimethoxy-Phenethylamines (Mescaline Derivatives) and Related Amphetamines

Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics

Effect of ecstasy [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)] on cerebral blood flow: a co-registered SPECT and MRI study

Towards an understanding of psychedelic-induced neuroplasticity

In vivo effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its deuterated form in rodents: Drug discrimination and thermoregulation.

Altered network hub connectivity after acute LSD administration

Separating the agony from ecstasy: R(-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine has prosocial and therapeutic-like effects without signs of neurotoxicity in mice

Comparison of psychedelic and near-death or other non-ordinary experiences in changing attitudes about death and dying

Psychological effects of (S)-ketamine and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT): a double-blind, cross-over study in healthy volunteers

Ayahuasca, a psychedelic beverage, modulates neuroplasticity induced by ethanol in mice

Increased thalamic resting state connectivity as a core driver of LSD-induced hallucinations

Using Psilocybin to Investigate the Relationship between Attention, Working Memory, and the Serotonin 1A and 2A Receptors

The mixed serotonin receptor agonist psilocybin reduces threat-induced modulation of amygdala connectivity

β-Carboline Compounds, Including Harmine, Inhibit DYRK1A and Tau Phosphorylation at Multiple Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Sites

Psychedelic Experiences and Mindfulness are Associated with Improved Wellbeing

Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

In Vivo Imaging of Cerebral Serotonin Transporter and Serotonin 2A Receptor Binding in MDMA and Hallucinogen Users

Acute dose of MDMA (75 mg) impairs spatial memory for location but leaves contextual processing of visuospatial information unaffected

Views on Using Psychoactive Substances to Self-Manage Functional Neurological Disorder: Online Patient Survey Results

Psychedelic Drugs in Biomedicine

Psychedelic Therapy's Transdiagnostic Effects: A Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Perspective

Psychedelic Resting-state Neuroimaging: A Review and Perspective on Balancing Replication and Novel Analyses

Modulation of Social Cognition via Hallucinogens and “Entactogens”.

Tripping on nothing: placebo psychedelics and contextual factors

Nootropic effects of LSD: Behavioral, molecular and computational evidence

Reduced precision underwrites ego dissolution and therapeutic outcomes under psychedelics

Distinct acute effects of LSD, MDMA, and D-amphetamine in healthy subjects.

The Acute Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on Emotional Episodic Memory Encoding, Consolidation, and Retrieval

Significance of mammalian N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT): A 60-year-old debate

LSD modulates music-induced imagery via changes in parahippocampal connectivity

Ibogaine: a review

Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) reverses stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, cortical synaptogenesis deficits and serotonergic neurotransmission decline

Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy—A Systematic Review of Associated Psychological Interventions

Connectome-harmonic decomposition of human brain activity reveals dynamical repertoire re-organization under LSD

Application of machine learning and complex network measures to an EEG dataset from ayahuasca experiments

How Low-Doses Of Psychedelics Compliment High Dose Experiences: Observational Evidence In Naturalistic Settings

Effects of classic psychedelic drugs on turbulent signatures in brain dynamics

Decreased mental time travel to the past correlates with default-mode network disintegration under lysergic acid diethylamide

Psychedelic 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine: metabolism, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and pharmacological actions

Increased global integration in the brain after psilocybin therapy for depression

Psilocybin-Induced Deficits in Automatic and Controlled Inhibition are Attenuated by Ketanserin in Healthy Human Volunteers

The NMDA antagonist ketamine and the 5-HT agonist psilocybin produce dissociable effects on structural encoding of emotional face expressions

Prolonged epigenomic and synaptic plasticity alterations following single exposure to a psychedelic in mice

LSD alters eyes‐closed functional connectivity within the early visual cortex in a retinotopic fashion

Unique Effects of Sedatives, Dissociatives, Psychedelics, Stimulants, and Cannabinoids on Episodic Memory: A Review and Reanalysis of Acute Drug Effects on Recollection, Familiarity, and Metamemory

A placebo-controlled investigation of synaesthesia-like experiences under LSD

MDMA and brain activity during neurocognitive performance: An overview of neuroimaging studies with abstinent ‘Ecstasy’ users

LSD-induced increase of Ising temperature and algorithmic complexity of brain dynamics

Moving Past Mysticism in Psychedelic Science

A network model of the modulation of gamma oscillations by NMDA receptors in cerebral cortex

On the fallibility of placebo control and how to address it: a case study in psychedelic microdosing

Neural Plasticity in the Ventral Tegmental Area, Aversive Motivation during Drug Withdrawal and Hallucinogenic Therapy

Semantic activation in LSD: evidence from picture naming

Emotional breakthrough and psychedelics: validation of the emotional breakthrough inventory

Metabolism and disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and harmala alkaloids after oral administration of ayahuasca

Endogenous hallucinogens as ligands of the trace amine receptors: A possible role in sensory perception

Effects of LSD on music-evoked brain activity

Genuine and drug-induced synesthesia: a comparison

MDMA-induced indifference to negative sounds is mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor

Toward a contextual psychedelic-assisted therapy: Perspectives from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and contextual behavioral science

Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide in an animal model of depression: Normalisation of learning behaviour and hippocampal serotonin 5-HT2 signalling

Human psychopharmacology and dose-effects of salvinorin A, a kappa opioid agonist hallucinogen present in the plant Salvia divinorum

The alkaloids of Banisteriopsis caapi, the plant source of the Amazonian hallucinogen Ayahuasca, stimulate adult neurogenesis in vitro

Future Directions for Clinical Psilocybin Research: The Relaxed Symptom Network

Metabolism of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): an update

Human Cortical Serotonin 2A Receptor Occupancy by Psilocybin Measured Using [11C]MDL 100,907 Dynamic PET and a Resting-State fMRI-Based Brain Parcellation

LSD, afterglow and hangover: Increased episodic memory and verbal fluency, decreased cognitive flexibility

A possibly sigma-1 receptor mediated role of dimethyltryptamine in tissue protection, regeneration, and immunity

Prospective examination of the therapeutic role of psychological flexibility and cognitive reappraisal in the ceremonial use of ayahuasca

Neuroimaging in psychedelic drug development: Past, present, and future

The Effects of Hallucinogens on Gene Expression

The clinical pharmacology and potential therapeutic applications of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)

Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and subjective effects of 50, 75, and 100 µg LSD in healthy participants within a novel intervention paradigm: A proof-of-concept study

Evidence for altered neural activity patterns after MDMA-assisted therapy in adults with chronic and severe post-traumatic stress disorder: a pilot study

Spatiotemporal Brain Dynamics of Emotional Face Processing Modulations Induced by the Serotonin 1A/2A Receptor Agonist Psilocybin

Perceptions of safety, subjective effects, and beliefs about the clinical utility of lysergic acid diethylamide in healthy participants within a novel intervention paradigm: Qualitative results from a proof-of-concept study

Self unbound: ego dissolution in psychedelic experience

Modulation of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor by a Single Dose of Ayahuasca: Observation From a Randomized Controlled Trial

A continuum hypothesis of psychotomimetic rapid antidepressants

Catalysts for change: the cellular neurobiology of psychedelics

Increased Entropic Brain Dynamics during DeepDream-Induced Altered Perceptual Phenomenology

Self-Actualization and the Integration of Psychedelic Experience: The Mediating Role of Perceived Benefits to Narrative Self-Functioning

Potential applications for sigma receptor ligands in cancer diagnosis and therapy

Predictive feedback, early sensory representations and fast responses to predicted stimuli depend on NMDA receptors

Metabolomics and integrated network analysis reveal roles of endocannabinoids and large neutral amino acid balance in the ayahuasca experience

Psychedelic Cognition—The Unreached Frontier of Psychedelic Science

The chemical induction of synaesthesia

Blood d-serine levels as a predictive biomarker for the rapid antidepressant effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine

Ketamine improves short-term plasticity in depression by enhancing sensitivity to prediction errors

Validation of the Psychological Insight Scale: A new scale to assess psychological insight following a psychedelic experience

Ketamine and Rapid-Acting Antidepressants: A Window into a New Neurobiology for Mood Disorder Therapeutics

Functional connectivity measures after psilocybin inform a novel hypothesis of early psychosis

Phenomenology and Content of the Inhaled N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (N, N-DMT) Experience

How Psychedelic-Assisted Treatment Works in the Bayesian Brain

Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego‐dissolution under psilocybin

The effects of psilocybin and MDMA on between-network resting state functional connectivity in healthy volunteers

Dose-related Behavioral, Subjective, Endocrine and Psychophysiological Effects Of the Kappa Opioid Agonist Salvinorin A in Humans

Investigating the Mechanisms of Hallucinogen-Induced Visions Using 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA): A Randomized Controlled Trial in Humans

Genetic influence of CYP2D6 on pharmacokinetics and acute subjective effects of LSD in a pooled analysis

Serotonergic hallucinogens and recognition of facial emotion expressions: a systematic review of the literature.

Transcriptomics-informed large-scale cortical model captures topography of pharmacological neuroimaging effects of LSD

Characterization of behavioral and endocrine effects of LSD on zebrafish

Serotonin transporter-ibogaine complexes illuminate mechanisms of inhibition and transport

The administration of psilocybin to healthy, hallucinogen-experienced volunteers in a mock-functional magnetic resonance imaging environment: a preliminary investigation of tolerability

Virtual Reality as a Moderator of Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy

Multiple receptors contribute to the behavioral effects of indoleamine hallucinogens

Survey of subjective “God encounter experiences”: Comparisons among naturally occurring experiences and those occasioned by the classic psychedelics psilocybin, LSD, ayahuasca, or DMT

Couple Therapy with MDMA – Proposed Pathways of Action

Psychedelic drugs-a new era in psychiatry?

Psychedelics promote structural and functional neural plasticity

Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance

Psilocybin modulation of dynamic functional connectivity is associated with plasma psilocin and subjective effects

Self-Administration of Entactogen Psychostimulants Dysregulates Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and Kappa Opioid Receptor Signaling in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala of Female Wistar Rats

Models of psychedelic drug action: modulation of cortical-subcortical circuits

Receptor interaction profiles of 4-alkoxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenethylamines (mescaline derivatives) and related amphetamines.

Psilocybin targets a common molecular mechanism for cognitive impairment and increased craving in alcoholism

LSD induces increased signalling entropy in rats' prefrontal cortex

Low-dose LSD and the stream of thought: Increased Discontinuity of Mind, Deep Thoughts and abstract flow

Bridging the Gap? Altered Thalamocortical Connectivity in Psychotic and Psychedelic States

Serotonergic Psychedelics in Neural Plasticity

Baseline power of theta oscillations predicts mystical-type experiences induced by DMT in a natural setting

Neurological and cognitive alterations induced by MDMA in humans

Low doses of LSD reduce broadband oscillatory power and modulate event-related potentials in healthy adults

Psilocin, LSD, mescaline, and DOB all induce broadband desynchronization of EEG and disconnection in rats with robust translational validity

Prefrontal contributions to the stability and variability of thought and conscious experience

Critical Period Plasticity as a Framework for Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy

Neuropsychological Functioning in Users of Serotonergic Psychedelics – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

The entropic brain: a theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs

The entropic brain - revisited

REBUS and the Anarchic Brain: Toward a Unified Model of the Brain Action of Psychedelics

LSD degrades hippocampal spatial representations and suppresses hippocampal-visual cortical interactions

Neural Mechanisms and Psychology of Psychedelic Ego Dissolution

The effects of tryptamine psychedelics in the brain: a meta-analysis of functional and review of molecular imaging studies

Consciousness in active inference: Deep self-models, other minds, and the challenge of psychedelic-induced ego-dissolution

Psilocybin Induces Aberrant Prediction Error Processing of Tactile Mismatch Responses-A Simultaneous EEG-FMRI Study

Psychedelic resting-state neuroimaging: a review and perspective on balancing replication and novel analyses

N,N-Dimethyltryptamine attenuates spreading depolarization and restrains neurodegeneration by sigma-1 receptor activation in the ischemic rat brain

Opposite alterations of 5­HT2A receptor brain density in subjects with schizophrenia: relevance of radiotracers pharmacological profile

Future Directions for Clinical Psychedelic Research: The Relaxed Symptom Network

LSD flattens the brain′s energy landscape: evidence from receptor-informed network control theory

Psychedelics and Consciousness: Distinctions, Demarcations, and Opportunities

From hallucinations to synaesthesia: a circular inference account of unimodal and multimodal erroneous percepts in clinical and drug-induced psychosis

Increased sensitivity to strong perturbations in a whole-brain model of LSD

Serotonergic psychedelic drugs LSD and psilocybin reduce the hierarchical differentiation of unimodal and transmodal cortex

A Dendrite-Focused Framework for Understanding the Actions of Ketamine and Psychedelics

LSD and ketanserin and their impact on the human autonomic nervous system

Neural Correlates of the Shamanic State of Consciousness

Effects of Acute Drug Administration on Emotion: a Review of Pharmacological MRI Studies

Effects of ketamine on brain function during metacognition of episodic memory

Neural and subjective effects of inhaled N,N-dimethyltryptamine in natural settings

Ketamine anesthesia enhances fear memory consolidation via noradrenergic activation in the basolateral amygdala

EEG Gamma Band Alterations and REM-like Traits Underpin the Acute Effect of the Atypical Psychedelic Ibogaine in the Rat

Investigation of the Structure−Activity Relationships of Psilocybin Analogues

The Effects of Daytime Psilocybin Administration on Sleep: Implications for Antidepressant Action

Subacute Effects of the Psychedelic Ayahuasca on the Salience and Default Mode Networks

Preliminary report on the effects of a low dose of LSD on resting-state amygdala functional connectivity

Dynamic coupling of whole-brain neuronal and neurotransmitter systems

Therapeutic mechanisms of psilocybin: Changes in amygdala and prefrontal functional connectivity during emotional processing after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression

Dynamical exploration of the repertoire of brain networks at rest is modulated by psilocybin

Receptor-Enriched Analysis of functional connectivity by targets (REACT): A novel, multimodal analytical approach informed by PET to study the pharmacodynamic response of the brain under MDMA

Cytochrome P450 enzymes contribute to the metabolism of LSD to nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD: Implications for clinical LSD use

Oxytocin-dependent reopening of a social reward learning critical period with MDMA

Ibogaine Administration Modifies GDNF and BDNF Expression in Brain Regions Involved in Mesocorticolimbic and Nigral Dopaminergic Circuits.

Effective connectivity changes in LSD-induced altered states of consciousness in humans

Effects of Ketamine on Brain Activity During Emotional Processing: Differential Findings in Depressed Versus Healthy Control Participants

Ketamine-Associated Brain Changes: A Review of the Neuroimaging Literature

The Varieties of the Psychedelic Experience: A Preliminary Study of the Association Between the Reported Subjective Effects and the Binding Affinity Profiles of Substituted Phenethylamines and Tryptamines

Whole-brain multimodal neuroimaging model using serotonin receptor maps explains non-linear functional effects of LSD

The neurobiology of depression, ketamine and rapid-acting antidepressants: Is it glutamate inhibition or activation?

A Single Dose of 5-MeO-DMT Stimulates Cell Proliferation, Neuronal Survivability, Morphological and Functional Changes in Adult Mice Ventral Dentate Gyrus

Ketamine normalizes brain activity during emotionally valenced attentional processing in depression

Dimensions of consciousness and the psychedelic state

Pharmacological fMRI: Effects of subanesthetic ketamine on resting-state functional connectivity in the default mode network, salience network, dorsal attention network and executive control network

Ibogaine Acute Administration in Rats Promotes Wakefulness, Long-Lasting REM Sleep Suppression, and a Distinctive Motor Profile

Psilocybin modulates functional connectivity of the amygdala during emotional face discrimination

Role of the 5-HT2A Receptor in Self- and Other-Initiated Social Interaction in Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Induced States: A Pharmacological fMRI Study

Salvinorin A preserves cerebral pial artery autoregulation after forebrain ischemia via the PI3K/AKT/cGMP pathway

Mechanisms of ketamine action as an antidepressant

Ketamine has distinct electrophysiological and behavioral effects in depressed and healthy subjects

Ketamine blocks bursting in the lateral habenula to rapidly relieve depression

Changes in global and thalamic brain connectivity in LSD-induced altered states of consciousness are attributable to the 5-HT2A receptor

Increased amygdala responses to emotional faces after psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression

Connectome-harmonic decomposition of human brain activity reveals dynamical repertoire re-organisation under LSD

The serotonin hallucinogen 5-MeO-DMT alters cortico-thalamic activity in freely moving mice: Regionally-selective involvement of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors

Ketamine’s antidepressant effect is mediated by energy metabolism and antioxidant defense system

N,N-dimethyltryptamine and the pineal gland: Separating fact from myth

Short term changes in the proteome of human cerebral organoids induced by 5-MeO-DMT

Acute LSD effects on response inhibition neural networks

MDMA Impairs Both the Encoding and Retrieval of Emotional Recollections

Inhibition of serotonin transporters disrupts the enhancement of fear memory extinction by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)

Two dose investigation of the 5-HT-agonist psilocybin on relative and global cerebral blood flow

A Single Dose of LSD Does Not Alter Gene Expression of the Serotonin 2A Receptor Gene (HTR2A) or Early Growth Response Genes (EGR1-3) in Healthy Subjects

Increased spontaneous MEG signal diversity for psychoactive doses of ketamine, LSD and psilocybin

The Nucleus Accumbens and Ketamine Treatment in Major Depressive Disorder

Pharmacogenetics of ecstasy: CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 polymorphisms moderate pharmacokinetics of MDMA in healthy subjects

Effects of the Natural β-Carboline Alkaloid Harmine, a Main Constituent of Ayahuasca, in Memory and in the Hippocampus: A Systematic Literature Review of Preclinical Studies

Ketamine Treatment and Global Brain Connectivity in Major Depression

The Endogenous Hallucinogen and Trace Amine N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Displays Potent Protective Effects against Hypoxia via Sigma-1 Receptor Activation in Human Primary iPSC-Derived Cortical Neurons and Microglia-Like Immune Cells

Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid systems in the pathophysiology of major depression and antidepressant response to ketamine

NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites

LSD alters eyes-closed functional connectivity within the early visual cortex in a retinotopic fashion

Ayahuasca: pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential

Meta-analysis of executive functioning in ecstasy/polydrug users

Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts subjective responses to MDMA

Time course of pharmacokinetic and hormonal effects of inhaled high-dose salvinorin A in humans

The serotonergic hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine disrupts cortical activity in a regionally-selective manner via 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors

Modulatory effect of the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the mixed non-hallucinogenic 5-HT1A/2A agonist ergotamine on psilocybin-induced psychedelic experience

Behavioral and pharmacokinetic interactions between monoamine oxidase inhibitors and the hallucinogen 5-methoxy-NN-dimethyltryptamine

Serotonergic Hallucinogen-Induced Visual Perceptual Alterations

New World Tryptamine Hallucinogens and the Neuroscience of Ayahuasca

Neuroimaging in moderate MDMA use: A systematic review

Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca

Acute ketamine challenge increases resting state prefrontal-hippocampal connectivity in both humans and rats

Restructuring consciousness -the psychedelic state in light of integrated information theory

Salvinorin-A induces intense dissociative effects, blocking external sensory perception and modulating interoception and sense of body ownership in humans

Ketamine-induced modulation of the thalamo-cortical network in healthy volunteers as a model for schizophrenia

Ketamine induces a robust whole-brain connectivity pattern that can be differentially modulated by drugs of different mechanism and clinical profile

The psychedelic state induced by ayahuasca modulates the activity and connectivity of the default mode network

Antidepressant actions of ketamine: from molecular mechanisms to clinical practice

Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens

The role of 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C and mGlu2 receptors in the behavioral effects of tryptamine hallucinogens N,N-dimethyltryptamine and N,N-diisopropyltryptamine in rats and mice

(R,S)-Ketamine metabolites (R,S)-norketamine and (2S,6S)-hydroxynorketamine increase the mammalian target of rapamycin function

Pharmacology of Hallucinations: Several Mechanisms for One Single Symptom?

Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder and the serotonergic system: A comprehensive review including new MDMA-related clinical cases

Interaction of psychoactive tryptamines with biogenic amine transporters and serotonin receptor subtypes

Classical hallucinogens as antidepressants? A review of pharmacodynamics and putative clinical roles

Reviewing the ketamine model for schizophrenia

Serotonergic hyperactivity as a potential factor in developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia

Broadband Cortical Desynchronization Underlies the Human Psychedelic State

The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas

When the endogenous hallucinogenic trace amine N, N-dimethyltryptamine meets the sigma-1 receptor

The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review

Serotonin research: contributions to understanding psychoses

Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects

Glutamate and the Neural Basis of the Subjective Effects of Ketamine: A Pharmaco–Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers depend on interstimulus interval

Hallucinogens recruit specific cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated signaling pathways to affect behavior

Effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca on regional brain electrical activity in humans: a functional neuroimaging study using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography

Effects of ayahuasca on sensory and sensorimotor gating in humans as measured by P50 suppression and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, respectively

Topographic pharmaco-EEG mapping of the effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in healthy volunteers

The pharmacology of psilocybin

Psychopathological, neuroendocrine and autonomic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE), psilocybin and d-methamphetamine in healthy volunteers: results of an experimental double-blind placebo-controlled study

Psychedelic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Volunteers: Relationship to Steady-state Plasma Concentrations

Mental changes experimentally produced by d-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate

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