Addiction

150 million people affected worldwide 1

Addiction, or substance use disorders, are associated with a significant disease burden and high rates of mortality. Collectively, smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use kills 11.8 million people each year. 1.5% of global disease burden results from alcohol and illicit drug addiction; in some countries it’s over 5%.

Current Treatments 1

Currently, there is no cure for substance use disorder. Treatment is based on individual needs and any related medical or mental health disorders a person may be experiencing. For substance use disorders, detoxification is often the first point of call. Depending on the substance in question, a combination of behavioural therapy and medication is often used to treat people with substance use disorders.

Psychedelic research currently is in Phase IIb

A number of double-blind placebo-controlled trials have taken place with psychedelics to treat substance use disorders. Psilocybin-assisted therapy has been used to treat nicotine addiction with positive results and a trial sponsored by the Heffter Research Institute is exploring the potential of psilocybin to treat alcohol use disorder. Trials using ayahuasca, ketamine, ibogaine and MDMA have also yielded positive results and many more are due to take place in the near future.

Key Insights

  • Substance use disorder (SUD) is a complex condition in which people have the inability to stop using a substance like alcohol or tobacco or stop engaging in behaviour despite it causing psychological and physical harm. SUDs shoulder a significant burden of the global disease burden.
  • Researchers have been attempting to use psychedelics to treat SUDs since the first wave of psychedelic research in the 1950s and 1960s. Promising research is continuing to take place with various psychedelics and there are many industry players focusing their efforts on different SUDs.

Index of psychedelics for addiction

What is substance use disorder?

Substance use disorder, commonly referred to as addiction, is a complex condition in which there is the uncontrolled use of a substance despite harmful consequences [1].

People with a substance use disorder have the inability to stop using a substance like alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs, or stop engaging in a behaviour despite it causing psychological and physical harm. Addiction is not limited to substance use and can also involve activities such as gambling, eating or working [2].

People with a substance use disorder may have distorted thinking and behaviours which has been accredited to changes in the brain’s structure and function. As a result of these changes, people often experience intense cravings, changes in personality and other behaviours [1].

Substance use disorder causes people to feel compelled to satisfy their addiction regularly due to cravings and prioritising this above all else. These symptoms/behaviours include spending money they do not have on their addiction, failing to meet obligations in work/other responsibilities, carrying out risky behaviours like driving while intoxicated or spending the majority of their time trying to satisfy their addiction [3].

While symptoms can only be experienced by the person with the disorder, signs which can be observed by other people exist including secretiveness, stealing and changes in their social group, to name a few [4].

It is estimated that over 2% of the world’s population live with some form of substance use disorder and, almost 12 million deaths can be attributed to substance use annually. Moreover, these disorders represent a significant health burden, accounting for 1.5% of the global disease burden as measured in DALYs [5].

Diagnosis & treatment

Diagnosing substance use disorder requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving evaluation and assessment by a psychiatrist, a psychologist or licensed alcohol and drug counsellor [3].

The DSM-V sets out 11 criteria for diagnosing someone with a substance use disorder. Some of these criteria include hazardous use, social/interpersonal problems related to use, withdrawal and physical/psychological problems related to use [6]. A person must meet two or more of these criteria within a 12-month period in order to be diagnosed with a substance use disorder.

A number of instruments have been designed to measure addiction severity such as the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) or the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS).

Currently, there is no cure for substance use disorder. Treatment is based on individual needs and any related medical or mental health disorders a person may be experiencing.

For substance use disorders, detoxification is often the first point of call. Medically-assisted detox allows a person to rid their body of addictive substances in a safe environment and is especially beneficial to people experiencing withdrawal symptoms [7].

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is another useful tool for a range of addiction disorders as it helps people to recognise their unhealthy behaviours and develop coping skills. Twelve-step therapy (12-steps programs) is another form of useful therapy, with organizations like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) using this form of therapy.

Depending on the type of substance used in the disorder, a range of medications exist. For alcohol and opioid use disorders, Vivitrol is often used which acts by blocking opioid receptors in the brain, therefore, minimizing the urge to use [8]. A combination of behavioural therapy and medication is often used to treat people with substance use disorders.

Substance use disorder and psychedelics

Research into the potential of psychedelics to treat substance use disorders dates back to the first era of psychedelic research in the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1950s, Humphrey Osmond and his colleagues began treating alcoholics in Canada with LSD and achieved significant rates of recovery [9].

These researchers also engaged with Alcoholics Anonymous groups and co-founder of AA Bill Wilson believed that LSD could help alcoholics achieve a “spiritual awakening and start on the path of recovery [10].”

However, like the majority of psychedelic research from this era, trials were not conducted with methodological rigour and therefore, findings from trials using psychedelics to treat alcoholism were not widely accepted. A comprehensive review of research exploring the positives and negatives of using psychedelics to treat alcoholism during this era can be found here.

Nevertheless, the findings from this era have inspired modern researchers to explore this potential for a range of substance use disorders, using the highest possible standards of modern clinical practice. 

A wide range of psychedelics is currently being trialled in the treatment of various substance use disorders.

Psilocybin

In 2014, Matthew Johnson and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins carried out the first study using psilocybin in tandem with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to treat tobacco addiction. This open-label pilot study (n=15) found that 80% of participants were no longer smoking after six months following a moderate (20mg/70kg) and high (30mg/70kg) dose of psilocybin. Such findings stand in contrast to commonly reported rates of smoking cessation following conventional behavioural and/or pharmacological therapies, which are typically <35%.

long-term follow-up study of participants in the trial found that 67% of those involved did not return to smoking. This was at 60% at an average of 30-month follow-up.

Further qualitative analysis by Tehseen Noorani and colleagues identified a number of factors that the trial participants accredited to their cessation in smoking behaviours. These factors included vivid insights gained during the psilocybin experience, good preparation, and strong rapport with the study team, to name a few.

While the open-label design of the trial and the small sample does not allow for any definitive conclusions to be drawn, the study has shown that psilocybin may be an effective treatment for substance use disorders and has laid the foundations for future research.

Noteworthily, the team at Johns Hopkins have recently been awarded the first federal grant in over 50 years for psychedelic treatment research and will use the grant to further explore the effects of psilocybin on tobacco addiction.

MDMA

In the world of psychedelics, MDMA is perhaps most well-known for its ability to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD thanks to the work being done at MAPS. However, the therapeutic potential of MDMA may be used to treat other mental health disorders including substance use disorders.

After making a case for utilizing MDMA-assisted therapy for the treatment of alcohol disorder in 2017, Dr Ben Sessa and colleagues carried out the world’s first clinical trial investigating the safety and tolerability of MDMA in patients with alcohol use disorder. 

Published in 2021, this trial found that not only was MDMA well tolerated by participants (n=13), alcohol consumption at nine months post-trial was 18.7 units per week compared to 130.6 units per week before the trial began. While placebo-controlled trials are needed, the findings of this study emphasize the potential of MDMA for substance use disorders.

Ketamine

Some clinical trials have taken place exploring the effects of using ketamine to treat substance use disorders.

Elias Dakwar and the team at Columbia University have conducted two separate trials using intravenously administered ketamine to treat both cocaine dependence and alcohol use disorder.

In the double-blind placebo-controlled trial exploring the effects of ketamine on cocaine dependence plus mindfulness-based therapy, the ketamine group scored significantly better and were 53% less likely to relapse when compared to the midazolam (placebo) group.

similarly designed study using a single ketamine infusion in tandem with motivational enhancement therapy to treat alcohol use disorder found that ketamine significantly increased the likelihood of abstinence, delayed the time to relapse, and reduced the likelihood of heavy drinking days compared with midazolam.

A study published at the beginning of 2022 assessed the effectiveness of 1) three weekly ketamine infusions (0.8 mg/kg i.v. over 40 minutes) plus psychological therapy, 2) three saline infusions plus psychological therapy, 3) three ketamine infusions plus alcohol education, or 4) three saline infusions plus alcohol education, in people with alcohol use disorder (AUD). It was found that participants in the ketamine groups abstained from alcohol for a significantly longer number of days at 6-month follow-up while the greatest abstinence was in the ketamine plus therapy group. Relapse times did not differ across the four groups. Sponsored by Awakn Life Sciences, this study is the first in the world to explore the effects of ketamine-assisted therapy on AUD.

A review of seven studies investigating the effects of ketamine on different substance use disorders found that ketamine may facilitate abstinence across multiple substances of abuse and warrants broader investigation in addiction treatment.

Ibogaine

A number of clinical trials have taken place exploring the potential of ibogaine in treating the symptoms of substance use disorders. Research exploring the anti-addiction properties of ibogaine dates back to the 1990s and many clinics offering ibogaine treatment exist in countries where ibogaine remains somewhat legal such as in Mexico.

2017 study, carried out in New Zealand where ibogaine is legal, found a single ibogaine treatment reduced opioid withdrawal symptoms and achieved opioid cessation or sustained reduced use in dependent individuals as measured over 12 months.

An observational study involving people seeking addiction treatment at a private clinic (n=30) found that ibogaine was associated with substantive effects on opioid withdrawal symptoms for up to one month, or even 12 months in select individuals.

While ibogaine may be used to treat other substance use disorders, one of its most significant therapeutic uses lies in the treatment of opioid use disorder. In the U.S alone, over 75,000 overdose deaths were attributed to opioids in 2021 [11]. Notwithstanding, while novel treatments for opioid use disorder are needed, the accompanying adverse effects ibogaine has on cardiotoxicity cannot be understated.

One of the major effects ibogaine has on the cardiovascular system is the prolongation of the QT interval, the time it takes for the heart chamber to contract and subsequently relax, which can increase a person’s risk of cardiac arrhythmia [12]. Subsequently, adequate patient screening is necessary before administering ibogaine as well as strict medical observation during the experience to minimize any potentially fatal risks.

Ayahuasca

Many review articles point to the therapeutic potential of using ayahuasca for treating SUDs. While few randomized-controlled trials have taken place with ayahuasca, a range of survey studies and positive anecdotal reports exist surrounding this psychedelic’s ability to help those with a SUD. These positive benefits largely come from Indigenous populations who use ayahuasca for religious purposes as well as the many people who have travelled to countries like Peru and Colombia where they can take part in ayahuasca ceremonies led by Indigenous groups.

A qualitative interview study (n=32) of members of the Santo Daime Church, who use ayahuasca as a religious sacrament, reported that this population attributed psychological and physical benefits to their ayahuasca use. Moreover, 22 out of the 24 participants who had reported a history of drug or alcohol dependence were said to be in full remission which they attributed to their participation in the church.

This survey study (n=1947) of people attending União do Vegetal (UDV) meetings on substance abuse compared their use of alcohol and tobacco to a national normative sample of Brazilians. While lifetime use of these substances was higher in the UDV-attending groups, the results indicate an association between reduced current alcohol and tobacco use amongst this group who participate in ayahuasca ceremonies.

An interview study (n=11) of members of an Indigenous community in Canada who use ayahuasca to help community members with SUDs found that all participants reported a decrease in substance use and cravings, while eight participants fully ceased using one substance. Participants stated that ayahuasca helped them to recognize negative thought patterns and behaviours related to their substance use.

This cross-sectional survey study (n=8269) investigated associations between ayahuasca consumption in naturalistic settings and the use of alcohol and other drugs across 40 different countries. Ayahuasca use was both strongly and consistently associated with very low (or even abstinence from) drug or alcohol use, with and without prior substance use disorders.

How might psychedelics treat substance use disorders?

Similar to other disorders for which psychedelics hold promise, in substance use disorders, the exact mechanisms are speculative. Their mechanisms of action are largely related to each drug’s specific effects on 5HT-2A or NMDA receptors.

Classic psychedelics like psilocybin are believed to affect the brains’ default mode network (DMN) thereby exerting their therapeutic effects.

The DMN is a collection of neural pathways that govern our self-image, our autobiographical memories, and our deeply ingrained beliefs and thought patterns [13]. 

Aberrant patterns of brain functional connectivity in the DMN have been observed across different classes of substance use disorder and are associated with craving and relapse [14].

Under the influence of psychedelics, activity within the DMN is believed to decrease, allowing people to break free from destructive neural patterns which drive their addictive behaviours and lifestyle.

Ketamine, on the other hand, is an NMDA receptor agonist. By binding to these receptors, ketamine increases the levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate at the synapse.

Ultimately, ketamine promotes neurogenesis and plasticity as well as disrupting neural networks which may block the reconsolidation of drug-related memories [15].

Compared to conventional treatments, psychedelics have been shown to have persisting long-lasting effects on the symptoms of addiction, making them a potentially very useful tool for treating substance use disorders.

Psychedelic industry and addiction

A number of players in the psychedelic industry are attempting to harness the potential of psychedelics for treating substance use disorders.

At Awakn Life Sciences, the aforementioned Ben Sessa, the company’s Chief Medical Officer, and the rest of the team Awakn are exploring the use of psychedelics to treat substance user disorders such as gambling addiction, behavioural addiction, opioid addiction as well as tobacco addiction.

Recently, Awakn announced that they are currently recruiting for the world’s first trial using ketamine to treat gambling addiction. This trial will be led by Celia Morgan at the University of Exeter who also led the aforementioned trial exploring the effects of ketamine-assisted therapy in people with AUD. Moreover, Awakn is developing new chemical entities, synthetic derivatives of other psychedelics, in order to help them tackle substance use disorders.

The team at MindMed are working on using the ibogaine derivative 18-MC (18-Methoxycoronaridine) to treat various forms of addiction. 18-MC has similar outcomes to ibogaine in terms of reducing substance use, however, it has a stronger safety profile in terms of its effects on the cardiovascular system. MindMed has announced that this trial was completed in December 2021 and that the results are due to be published in early 2022.

Other companies active in this space include Universal Ibogaine and Entheon Biomedical.

As the name suggests, Universal Ibogaine is treating persons with addiction disorders using ibogaine. Etheon Biomedical on the other hand is attempting to use DMT to treat addiction, with an animal model study underway in Israel.

Ultimately, novel treatments are needed for substance use disorders. As research in this field of psychedelic science progresses, the use of psychedelics to treat these disorders may soon become a reality.

References

1. American Psychiatric Association. (2020). What is addiction? Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/addiction/what-is-addiction

2. Felman, A. (2021). What is addiction? Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323465

3. Mayo Clinic. (2017). Drug addiction (substance use disorder). Rochester: Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/drug-addiction/symptoms-causes/syc-20365112

4. Hartney, E. (2020). Signs and Symptoms of Addiction. Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/symptoms-of-addiction-22244

5. Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2019). Drug Use. Our World in Data. https://ourworldindata.org/drug-use#disease-burden-from-substance-use-disorders

6. Hartney, E. (2020). The 11 Official Criteria for Addiction/Substance Use Disorder. Verywell Mind. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-are-the-official-criteria-for-addiction-22493

7. Underwood, C. (2020). 6 Treatments For Addiction That Are Proven Successful. WebMD. https://www.webmd.com/connect-to-care/addiction-treatment-recovery/successful-treatments-for-addiction

8. National Institute of Drug Abuse. (2014). Addiction Medications. National Institute of Drug Abuse. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/principles-adolescent-substance-use-disorder-treatment-research-based-guide/evidence-based-approaches-to-treating-adolescent-substance-use-disorders/addiction-medications

9. Dyck, E. (2006). ‘Hitting Highs at Rock Bottom’: LSD Treatment for Alcoholism, 1950–1970. Social History of Medicine, 313-329. https://academic.oup.com/shm/article-abstract/19/2/313/2259116

10. Hill, A. (2012). LSD could help alcoholics stop drinking, AA founder believed. London: The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2012/aug/23/lsd-help-alcoholics-theory

11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Drug Overdose Deaths in the U.S. Top 100,000 Annually. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/nchs_press_releases/2021/20211117.htm

12. Koenig, X., & Hilber, K. (2015). The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation. Molecules.

13. Buckner, R., Andrews-Hanna, J., & Schacter, D. (2008). The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18400922/

14. Zhang, R., & Volkow, N. (2019). Brain default-mode network dysfunction in addiction. Journal of Neuroimaging. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333920984_Brain_default-mode_network_dysfunction_in_addiction

15. Ezquerra-Romano, I., Lawn, W., Krupitsky, E., & Morgan, C. (2018). Ketamine for the treatment of addiction: Evidence and potential mechanisms. Neuropharmacology, 72-82. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.01.017

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Highlighted Institutes

These are the institutes, from companies to universities, who are working on Addiction.

Revixia Life Sciences

Revixia Life Sciences is a biotech company developing Salvinorin A (salvia) for substance use disorders (SUD), treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and pain.

MindMed

MindMed is one of the largest companies in the psychedelics space and is developing various psychedelics for mental health disorders.

AWAKN Life Sciences

AWAKN Life Sciences aims to bring psychedelics therapy to the UK. Under this company fall three arms; psychedelic research, clinic platform, and practitioner training.

Universal Ibogaine

Universal Ibogaine wants to treat opioid addiction through opening 52 clinics before the end of 2025.

Entheon Biomedical

Entheon Biomedical is a listed (CSE) company that aims to develop DMT for addiction treatment.

Highlighted People

These are some of the best-known people, from researchers to entrepreneurs, working on Addiction.

Chris Stauffer

Chris Stauffer is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU), Physician-Scientist with the VA Portland Health Care System, and dual board-certified in Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine.

Peter Hendricks

Peter Hendricks is a Professor in the Department of Health Behaviour at the University of Alabama. Hendricks's area of expertise lies in substance abuse treatment and prevention.

Ben Sessa

Ben Sessa is psychedelics researcher, psychotherapist, advocate for legalization, author, co-founder of Breaking Convention, and Chief Medical Officer at AWAKN Life Sciences.

Matthew Johnson

Matthew Johnson is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. His research is concerned with addiction medicine, drug abuse, and drug dependence.

Celia Morgan

Celia Morgan is a Professor of Psychopharmacology at the University of Exeter.

Linked Research Papers about Addiction

Traditional Amazonian medicine in addiction treatment: Qualitative results

Therapeutic mechanisms of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions: from indirect evidence to testable hypotheses

Associations between classic psychedelics and opioid use disorder in a nationally-representative U.S. adult sample

Drugs as instruments: A new framework for non-addictive psychoactive drug use

Neural Plasticity in the Ventral Tegmental Area, Aversive Motivation during Drug Withdrawal and Hallucinogenic Therapy

Psychedelic treatment for co-occurring alcohol misuse and post-traumatic stress symptoms among United States Special Operations Forces Veterans

Psilocybin targets a common molecular mechanism for cognitive impairment and increased craving in alcoholism

Novel Treatment Approaches for Substance Use Disorders: Therapeutic Use of Psychedelics and the Role of Psychotherapy

The Effects of MDMA-Assisted Therapy on Alcohol and Substance Use in a Phase 3 Trial for Treatment of Severe PTSD

The serotonin 5-HT2C receptor and the non-addictive nature of classic hallucinogens

Exploring protective associations between the use of classic psychedelics and cocaine use disorder: a population-based survey study

Predicting changes in substance use following psychedelic experiences: natural language processing of psychedelic session narratives

Synthesis and κ-opioid receptor activity of furan-substituted salvinorin A analogues

Psychedelics and reconsolidation of traumatic and appetitive maladaptive memories: focus on cannabinoids and ketamine

Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of serotonergic psychedelics for the management of mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders: a systematic review of systematic reviews

The Effects of Drugs on Behavior Maintained by Social Contact: Role of Monoamines in Social Reinforcement

Ayahuasca and tobacco smoking cessation: results from an online survey in Brazil

Role of 5-HT2A receptors in the effects of ayahuasca on ethanol self-administration using a two-bottle choice paradigm in male mice

Adjunctive Ketamine With Relapse Prevention–Based Psychological Therapy in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder

A systematic literature review of clinical trials and therapeutic applications of ibogaine

Debunking the myth of ‘Blue Mondays’: No evidence of affect drop after taking clinical MDMA

Psychedelic use is associated with reduced daily opioid use among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting

Self-reported PTSD is associated with increased use of MDMA in adolescents with substance use disorders

Ibogaine Blocks Cue- and Drug-Induced Reinstatement of Conditioned Place Preference to Ethanol in Male Mice

Spiritual experiences in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy: Case reports of communion with the divine, the departed, and saints in research using psilocybin for the treatment of alcohol dependence

"This Is Something That Changed My Life": A Qualitative Study of Patients' Experiences in a Clinical Trial of Ketamine Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

Classic psychedelics in the treatment of substance use disorder: Potential synergies with twelve-step programs

Associations between ayahuasca consumption in naturalistic settings and current alcohol and drug use: Results of a large international cross-sectional survey

Novel Class of Psychedelic Iboga Alkaloids Disrupts Opioid Addiction States

Registered clinical studies investigating psychedelic drugs for psychiatric disorders

Protocol for Outcome Evaluation of Ayahuasca-Assisted Addiction Treatment: The Case of Takiwasi Center

Therapeutic potential of ketamine for alcohol use disorder

Effects of ayahuasca and its alkaloids on substance use disorders: an updated (2016-2020) systematic review of preclinical and human studies

Do Hallucinogens Have a Role in the Treatment of Addictions? A Review of the Current Literature

Naturalistic Use of Mescaline Is Associated with Self-Reported Psychiatric Improvements and Enduring Positive Life Changes

Clinical and biological predictors of psychedelic response in the treatment of psychiatric and addictive disorders: a systematic review

Safety of ibogaine administration in detoxification of opioid dependent individuals: a descriptive open-label observational study

First study of safety and tolerability of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-assisted psychotherapy in patients with alcohol use disorder

Within-treatment changes in a novel addiction treatment program using traditional Amazonian medicine

Classical Psychedelics as Therapeutics in Psychiatry - Current Clinical Evidence and Potential Therapeutic Mechanisms in Substance Use and Mood Disorders

Mystical-type experiences occasioned by ketamine mediate its impact on at-risk drinking: Results from a randomized, controlled trial

Psychedelics as an emerging novel intervention in the treatment of substance use disorder: a review

Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review of modern-era clinical studies

Classic Psychedelics as a Psychotherapeutic Aid in the Treatment of Stimulant Use Disorder: a Case Report

Psilocybin and LSD Have No Long-Lasting Effects in an Animal Model of Alcohol Relapse

Psychedelic Psychiatry’s Brave New World

Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy

A review of emerging therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses

Persisting Reductions in Cannabis, Opioid, and Stimulant Misuse After Naturalistic Psychedelic Use: An Online Survey

Therapeutic Use of LSD in Psychiatry: A Systematic Review of Randomized-Controlled Clinical Trials

A Single Ketamine Infusion Combined With Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Alcohol Use Disorder: A Randomized Midazolam-Controlled Pilot Trial

Exploring ayahuasca‐assisted therapy for addiction: A qualitative analysis of preliminary findings among an Indigenous community in Canada

First study of safety and tolerability of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy in patients with alcohol use disorder: preliminary data on the first four participants

A single ketamine infusion combined with mindfulness-based behavioral modification to treat cocaine dependence: a randomized clinical trial

Cessation and reduction in alcohol consumption and misuse after psychedelic use

Psychedelic-Assisted Group Therapy: A Systematic Review

Ibogaine Administration Modifies GDNF and BDNF Expression in Brain Regions Involved in Mesocorticolimbic and Nigral Dopaminergic Circuits.

Association of Combined Naltrexone and Ketamine With Depressive Symptoms in a Case series of Patients With Depression and Alcohol Use Disorder

Metabolite Profiling of Antiaddictive Alkaloids from Four Mexican Tabernaemontana Species and the Entheogenic African Shrub Tabernanthe iboga (Apocynaceae)

Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder After Ibogaine Treatment for Opioid Dependence

A sub-set of psychoactive effects may be critical to the behavioral impact of ketamine on cocaine use disorder: results from a randomized, controlled laboratory study

Ketamine for the treatment of addiction: Evidence and potential mechanisms

DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Ibogaine

Therapeutic Potential Ascribed to Ayahuasca by Users in the Czech Republic

Efficacy of Ketamine in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review

A Mixed-Method Analysis of Persisting Effects Associated with Positive Outcomes Following Ibogaine Detoxification

Psychedelic therapy for smoking cessation: Qualitative analysis of participant accounts

Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and Cocaine Abusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations and Treatment Outcomes

A phenomenological investigation into the lived experience of ibogaine and its potential to treat opioid use disorders

Ayahuasca and Its DMT- and β-carbolines – Containing Ingredients Block the Expression of Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice: Role of the Treatment Environment

Assessment of Alcohol and Tobacco Use Disorders Among Religious Users of Ayahuasca

Changes in Withdrawal and Craving Scores in Participants Undergoing Opioid Detoxification Utilizing Ibogaine

Ceremonial ‘Plant Medicine’ use and its relationship to recreational drug use: an exploratory study

The psychedelic debriefing in alcohol dependence treatment: illustrating key change phenomena through qualitative content analysis of clinical sessions

Clinical interpretations of patient experience in a trial of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for alcohol use disorder

A case report SPECT study and theoretical rationale for the sequential administration of ibogaine and 5-MeO-DMT in the treatment of alcohol use disorder

Why MDMA therapy for alcohol use disorder? And why now?

Subjective effectiveness of ibogaine treatment for problematic opioid consumption: Short-and long-term outcomes and current psychological functioning

A phenomenological analysis of the subjective experience elicited by ibogaine in the context of a drug dependence treatment

Ayahuasca’s entwined efficacy: an ethnographic study of ritual healing from ‘addiction’

Treatment of opioid use disorder with ibogaine: detoxification and drug use outcomes

Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy: A Review of a Novel Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders

Detoxification from methadone using low, repeated, and increasing doses of ibogaine: A case report

A unique natural selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, salvinorin A, and its roles in human therapeutics

The association of psychedelic use and opioid use disorders among illicit users in the United States

Tripping up addiction: the use of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of problematic drug and alcohol use

An online survey of tobacco smoking cessation associated with naturalistic psychedelic use

Hallucinogen use predicts reduced recidivism among substance-involved offenders under community corrections supervision

Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation

Treating drug dependence with the aid of ibogaine: a qualitative study

The antiaddictive effects of ibogaine: A systematic literature review of human studies

Predicting the Abuse Liability of Entactogen-Class, New and Emerging Psychoactive Substances via Preclinical Models of Drug Self-administration

Development of a Psychotherapeutic Model for Psilocybin-Assisted Treatment of Alcoholism

Ketamine abuse potential and use disorder

Ibogaine for treating drug dependence. What is a safe dose?

Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders?

Treating Addiction: Perspectives from EEG and Imaging Studies on Psychedelics

Serotonin antagonists fail to alter MDMA self-administration in rats

Effects of Ayahuasca and its Alkaloids on Drug Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review of Quantitative Studies in Animals and Humans

Cocaine self-administration disrupted by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine: a randomized, crossover trial

Hallucinogen use and intimate partner violence: Prospective evidence consistent with protective effects among men with histories of problematic substance use

Oral noribogaine shows high brain uptake and anti-withdrawal effects not associated with place preference in rodents

The therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca: possible effects against various diseases of civilization

Ascending single-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study of noribogaine in opioid-dependent patients

Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions

Mania following use of ibogaine: A case series

The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation

Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: a proof-of-concept study

Can psychedelic compounds play a part in drug dependence therapy?

A Review of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) in the Treatment of Addictions: Historical Perspectives and Future Prospects

Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction

Treating drug dependence with the aid of ibogaine: A retrospective study

Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction

Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, peyote, ibogaine and ayahuasca

Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in the treatment of substance dependence: qualitative results

Can MDMA Play a Role in the Treatment of Substance Abuse?

Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a preliminary observational study in Canada

Studying the Effects of Classic Hallucinogens in the Treatment of Alcoholism: Rationale, Methodology, and Current Research with Psilocybin

Hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Single versus repeated sessions of ketamine-assisted psychotherapy for people with heroin dependence

Treatment of alcoholism using psychedelic drugs: a review of the program of research

Assessment of addiction severity among ritual users of ayahuasca

Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine

Evidence of health and safety in American members of a religion who use a hallucinogenic sacrament

‘Hitting highs at rock bottom’: LSD treatment for alcoholism, 1950–1970

Mechanisms of antiaddictive actions of ibogaine

Psychological and cognitive effects of long-term peyote use among Native Americans

Report on psychoactive drug use among adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious context

Ketamine psychotherapy for heroin addiction: immediate effects and two-year follow-up

Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): a review of the results of ten years of research

Inhibitory effects of ibogaine on cocaine self-administration in rats

DPT as an adjunct in psychotherapy of alcoholics

A clinical study of LSD treatment in alcoholism

Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy for Substance Use Disorders and Potential Mechanisms of Action

Lysergide Treatment of Schizophrenic and Nonschizophrenic Alcoholics; A Controlled Evaluation

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