This is the first study (and still one of the few) to use psilocybin and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in concert for smoking cessation. 80% of participants, in the open-label study, were smoking-free after 6 months.
“Despite suggestive early findings on the therapeutic use of hallucinogens in the treatment of substance use disorders, rigorous follow-up has not been conducted. To determine the safety and feasibility of psilocybin as an adjunct to tobacco smoking cessation treatment we conducted an openlabel pilot study administering moderate (20 mg/70 kg) and high (30 mg/70 kg) doses of psilocybin within a structured 15-week smoking cessation treatment protocol. Participants were 15 psychiatrically healthy nicotine-dependent smokers (10 males; mean age of 51 years), with a mean of six previous lifetime quit attempts, and smoking a mean of 19 cigarettes per day for a mean of 31 years at intake. Biomarkers assessing smoking status, and self-report measures of smoking behavior demonstrated that 12 of 15 participants (80%) showed seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The observed smoking cessation rate substantially exceeds rates commonly reported for other behavioral and/or pharmacological therapies (typically <35%). Although the open-label design does not allow for definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of psilocybin, these findings suggest psilocybin may be a potentially efficacious adjunct to current smoking cessation treatment models. The present study illustrates a framework for future research on the efficacy and mechanisms of hallucinogen-facilitated treatment of addiction..”
- Fist study on the use of psilocybin for tobacco addiction (smoking)
- 80% still weren’t smoking after 6 months (vs <35% for other interventions)
- A positive sign that psilocybin may be used for smoking cessation, but little follow-up studies in this area
It also is followed-up by an analysis of the music used by Strickland, Garcia-Romeu & Johnson (2020).
A survey study of people who (fully/partially/temporarily) stopped smoking after psychedelic use was done by Johnson and colleagues (2017) which showed similar large and positive results.
As it was the first study with psilocybin for smoking cessation, the goal was to test safety, feasibility, and give the first indication of efficacy. The study also highlights possible improvements and updates for future research.
“Based on the Timeline Follow-back and verified by CO and cotinine measures, 12 of 15 (80%) participants showed seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up”.
Of those that did continue smoking, the daily total was significantly reduced (from 20 to 14 per day).
“Smoking-related mortalities in the USA are currently estimated at 480,000 annually (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2014), and 5 million annually worldwide (World Health Organization, 2011).”
Although there isn’t much follow-up (yet) to this study, and the protocols need to be refined, the problem that it’s tackling is far from insignificant. Also, the 80% stopping rate versus the typical 35% or less is quite significant.
“[L]ong-term abstinence may be enhanced by including multiple sessions, which may work by extending the “afterglow” period through the time of greatest relapse risk, or by increasing the probability of a transformative mystical experience.”
Multiple sessions may make it easier to get over the relapse period.
The participants had many moments of contact with the researchers/therapists:
- 90 min x4 preparatory meetings
- 8 hours session (x2 or x3)
- 60 min x1 after a session (x2 or x3)
- 45 min x10 support meetings
- 5 min x14 daily phone call
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was part of the preparatory meetings. During the session there was no active therapy, just like with other studies the participants were directed inward and listened to music.
“Eleven (73%) rated at least one psilocybin session among the five most spiritually significant experiences of their lives, and 13 (87%) reported that their personal well-being or life satisfaction had increased very much as a result of at least one psilocybin session.”
In line with earlier research (e.g. Griffiths et al., 2008), this paper again shows how significant the sessions were to participants.
“However, the mechanistic role of psilocybin in smoking cessation remains unclear. Participant responses in the present study suggest that increased temporal horizon, increased self-efficacy, and altered life priorities may be involved.”
In the final discussion, the authors note that we don’t know exactly what is it in the psilocybin-assisted session that helps people stop smoking. This is, of course, something that will be readily studied in the coming years.
Find this paper
Journal of Psychopharmacology
September 11, 2014
Authors associated with this publication with profiles on BlossomMatthew Johnson
Matthew Johnson is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins University. His research is concerned with addiction medicine, drug abuse, and drug dependence.
Albert Garcia-Romeu is one of the principal researchers in the renaissance of psychedelics studies. He is doing his research at Johns Hopkins and focuses on psilocybin and how it can help with treating addiction.
Roland R. Griffiths is one of the strongest voices in psychedelics research. With over 400 journal articles under his belt and as one of the first researchers in the psychedelics renaissance, he has been a vital part of the research community.
The psychedelics given at which dose and how many timesPsilocybin 20 - 30
mg | 3x
Linked Research Papers
Notable research papers that build on or are influenced by this paperLong-term follow-up of psilocybin-facilitated smoking cessation
This follow-up study (n=15) found that at 12-months 67% of participants didn't return to smoking (biologically confirmed). This was 60% at an average of 30-months follow-up. This study is a first (very positive) step in seeing of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy may be a viable way for people to quit smoking.
Psychedelic therapy for smoking cessation: Qualitative analysis of participant accounts
This long-term, qualitative follow-up study dissects the factors that lead to long-term smoking cessation. Vivid insights, rapport with the study team, good preparation, were some of the factors that led to this effect.
Set and Setting: A Randomized Study of Different Musical Genres in Supporting Psychedelic Therapy
This further analysis of an open-label, counter-balanced study (n=10) with psilocybin (20-30mg/70kg) found that overtone-based music (e.g. gongs) was more effective than classical music.
Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction
This follow-up study (n=15) to an open-label pilot-study of psilocybin-facilitated smoking addiction treatment found that the mystical experience (MEQ) but not the intensity of the experience was predictive of smoking abstinence (80% at 6-month follow-up).