284 million people affected worldwide 1
Anxiety disorders are the worlds most prevalent mental health disorders. These disorders are some of the debilitating disorders and shoulder a significant economic burden. The COVID-19 pandemic has severely increased the prevalence of anxiety disorders, with an additional 53 million cases of anxiety thought to be directly linked to the pandemic.
Current Treatments 1
Conventional anxiety treatments include medications like SSRIs, SNRIs and anxiolytics like benzodiazepines. These medications are used in tandem with psychotherapy. Unfortunately, it is estimated that 40% of people with anxiety do not respond to treatment.
Psychedelic research currently is in Phase IIb
Research into utilizing the potential of psychedelics to treat anxiety disorders is underway. Several double-blind placebo-controlled studies have been done to date. Several ongoing studies are in Phase IIb which should provide more evidence for the effectiveness of psychedelics for anxiety.
- Anxiety disorders are the world’s most prevalent mental health disorders, affecting roughly 300 million people globally and accounting for 3.4% of all years lived with disability (YLD).
- Several psychedelics are showing promise for treating the various forms of anxiety. It is often experienced alongside depression and is a symptom of PTSD. Therefore, psychedelics trials also often measure anxiety to treat other disorders. Early trials with psilocybin and MDMA are proving to be effective in alleviating symptoms of anxiety.
- Anxiety disorders are the target of several companies. MindMed is working with the team at the University of Basel to explore the potential of using LSD to treat generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Cybin has been investigating social anxiety disorder (SAD) and GAD as the target of their proprietary CYB004 molecule.
What is anxiety?
Anxiety is an emotion characterised by feelings of tension and worrying thoughts . Experiencing occasional anxiety in response to stressful situations is a normal part of life as it can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention .
However, an array of anxiety disorders exist, and there are estimated to be over 284 million people experiencing anxiety disorders across the globe. With such a large number of people experiencing anxiety disorders, they are now the most prevalent mental health disorders globally and account for 3.4% of all years lived with a disability (YLDs) .
Types of anxiety disorders include; generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and PTSD are also understood to be anxiety disorders. These are covered in separate articles.
According to the DSM-V (a manual for assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders), anxiety disorders are generally diagnosed when a person experiences symptoms including; the presence of excessive anxiety and worry about a variety of topics, events, or activities for periods longer than six months, the worry or distress interferes with daily living and other symptoms such as edginess or restlessness, irritability and sleep disturbances .
Given the nature of these disorders, anxiety is often experienced alongside depression, with both disorders shouldering a significant global economic burden . Common anxiety treatments include medications like SSRIs, SNRIs (both antidepressants) and anxiolytics like benzodiazepines.
Medication used in tandem with psychotherapy is often considered a fundamental aspect of treatment . Unfortunately, many people do not respond adequately to these conventional treatments . It is estimated that around 40% of patients with anxiety don’t respond to treatments.
With psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy tipped to be the next big treatment model in mental health care, research into the potential of psychedelic drugs to treat anxiety disorders is well underway.
Psychedelics and Anxiety
Psychedelics including psilocybin, LSD, MDMA, and ketamine show great promise in alleviating the symptoms of various anxiety disorders. Clinical trials involving these substances occur across the globe, each at various stages of the clinical trial process.
Both psilocybin and MDMA effectively treat end-of-life anxiety (ELA), a common occurrence for most patients in palliative care . One of the many endeavours of MAPS is a recent Phase II trial led by Phil Wolfson. Patients experiencing ELA were administered 125mg of MDMA in combination with two eight-hour psychotherapy sessions in the trial.
At the end of this trial, the MDMA group had a greater mean reduction in STAI-Trait scores (a standard checklist used to measure anxiety) when compared to the control group. With MDMA being awarded ‘breakthrough therapy’ status by the FDA in 2017 for the treatment of PTSD, in which severe anxiety is a significant symptom, the use of MDMA to treat anxiety disorders may soon follow suit.
A 2018 double-blind placebo-controlled trial exploring the effects of MDMA-assisted therapy to treat social anxiety in autistic adults yielded promising results. Led by Alicia Danforth and Charles Grob, this pilot study found a significant reduction in social anxiety following two MDMA-assisted therapy sessions in which eight participants received 75 to 125 mg of MDMA. Noteworthily, improvements in social anxiety remained the same, even continuing to improve slightly, in the MDMA group at the six-month follow-up .
“We believe MDMA-Assisted therapy is particularly well-situated to be a novel, efficient, and effective intervention to help individuals with [social anxiety disorder] alleviate psychological suffering and improve social functioning.”Lear & Luoma, 2021
Roland Griffiths and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins reported similar reductions in symptoms of both anxiety and depression in a Phase II study upon administering varying doses of psilocybin to patients experiencing ELA . Furthermore, 80% of participants in this study continued to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety at the six-month follow-up.
Chia-Ling Yu and colleagues provide further evidence for the efficacy of using psilocybin to treat ELA . Their recently published (2021) systematic review of five studies using psilocybin to treat ELA found that psilocybin-assisted therapy could ameliorate ELA symptoms without serious adverse events. These effects were superior to that of the placebo. In addition, psilocybin exhibited effectiveness in managing anxiety at the time points of 1 day and 1, 3, and 6 months after a single treatment session .
Paul Liknaitzky has also announced that Monash University will lead the world’s first trial investigating psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy to treat generalised anxiety disorder. The study has just passed through ethics approval and will start in 2022.
“High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety … and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety.”Griffiths et al. 2016
Another psychedelic drug that has re-emerged in recent years and is making headway for its ability to treat anxiety is ketamine. Ketamine stands alone in the world of psychedelics, given that it is readily available and accessible off-label for those with both depressive and anxiety disorders. In a study of 12 patients with a refractory generalised anxiety disorder or social anxiety disorder who were not depressed, ten of the 12 participants (83%) found relief within one hour of a single ketamine infusion. This relief lasted for up to seven days .
In 2017, Jerome Taylor and colleagues investigated the effects of ketamine in 18 adults with social anxiety disorder. A significant reduction in anxiety was observed in those who received intravenous ketamine (35mg/70kg over 40 min) when compared to the control group. While reductions were observed when using the Lebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the contrary was true on the self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS-anxiety). The researchers attributed this observation to inadequate blinding as 17 of the 18 participants correctly identified if they received ketamine . Issues surrounding blinding are continuing to create problems for researchers across all areas of psychedelic science.
A retrospective pilot study involving eight patients in palliative care found that treatment with esketamine, sold under the brand name Spravato, had a positive impact while they were receiving therapy for pain. The study found that esketamine reduced psychological distress in these patients and that this positive effect is primarily related to reductions in symptoms of anxiety, measured using the STAID. Interestingly, the effect ketamine had on measures of depression was mild in comparison to the anxiolytic effects .
Ketamine is usually administered intravenously within a clinical environment and can rapidly alleviate anxiety-related symptoms . Given its availability, many ketamine clinics exist in many major US cities whilst in Europe, Ovid Clinic (Germany), Awakn, and Save Minds (United Kingdom) are some of the few available options.
How might psychedelics treat anxiety?
As with many psychedelics, the exact mechanisms by which they act remain speculative . Here are the key psychedelics and the main mechanisms through which they can help alleviate anxiety. These mechanisms are somewhat simplified for clarity.
In the case of MDMA, it acts in the brain by binding to the serotonin transporter. It is transported into the nerve terminal, thereby stimulating the release of serotonin. This key neurotransmitter stabilises our mood, feelings of well-being, and happiness . By stimulating the release and reuptake of serotonin and the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, people feel more open, have a greater sense of empathy, sensory pleasure and less anxiety.
Psilocybin is a 5HT-2A receptor agonist, stimulating the release of serotonin in the brain through a mechanism of action different to MDMA .
Both MDMA and psilocybin are believed to reduce activity in the amygdala, a region of the brain associated with regulating emotions, reducing this region’s response to negative emotional stimuli .
Additionally, psilocybin is thought to “turn off” the default mode network (DMN) in turn, disrupting the brain circuitry underlying mental disorders like anxiety . The DMN is a collection of neural pathways that govern our self-image, autobiographical memories, and deeply ingrained beliefs and thought patterns . Thus, by disrupting the neural circuitry in this region, psilocybin allows people to alter the ingrained beliefs and thought patterns that may be underlying their anxiety.
In doing so, these psychedelic drugs reduce anxiety in the face of emotionally challenging thoughts with patients reporting overall increases in their quality of life which they attribute to these psychedelic therapy sessions.
Ketamine exerts its effects through a different mechanism of action. Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Its anxiolytic effects are presumed to occur through increasing secretion and translation of brain-derived neurotrophic growth fact (BDNF), which, in turn, activates synaptic plasticity i.e. strengthening the connection between neurons .
The impact ketamine has on plasticity is rapid, occurring within hours of administration. Although the ability of ketamine to alleviate symptoms of anxiety may be rapid, the anxiolytic effects are transient compared to classic psychedelics such as psilocybin, lasting in the region of one to two weeks .
“Ketamine may be a potential therapeutic alternative for patients with refractory generalized anxiety disorder/social anxiety disorder.”Glue et al. 2017
Notwithstanding, it is worth noting that side effects associated with the use of ketamine exist. A review of 60 articles in which ketamine was used to treat depression identified that headache, dizziness, dissociation, elevated blood pressure, and blurred vision were the most common in response to intravenous infusion. Furthermore, the most common acute psychiatric side-effect was anxiety . Thus, long-term, large-scale clinical trials are needed to assess the safety of the long-term regular use of ketamine.
Psychedelic industry and anxiety
As psychedelics are gradually entering the mainstream, several companies have entered the field with hopes to use psychedelic drugs to treat anxiety.
One such company is the New York-based MindMed which has raised over $200 million since its founding in 2019. In 2020, MindMed launched Project Lucy in collaboration with Dr Matthias Liechti and Dr Peter Gasser and their team at University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Project Lucy is exclusively dedicated to exploring the potential of LSD to treat anxiety disorders, with Phase IIa trials nearing completion.
Project Lucy builds on the work of Dr Gasser, who in 2014 led a team of researchers, including Rick Doblin, as they carried out one of the first double-blind placebo-controlled trials (n=12) investigating the safety and efficacy of using LSD to treat end-of-life anxiety. The results of this trial demonstrated that when administered safely in a methodologically rigorous supervised psychotherapeutic setting, LSD can reduce anxiety .
Cybin is also focusing on progressing psychedelic therapeutics from Toronto, Canada. Before commencing trading on the NYSE as of August 2021, Cybin had raised over $88 million and had filed 13 patent applications for synthetic derivatives of psychedelic compounds like psilocybin and DMT. Cybin has chosen social and generalised anxiety disorders as the initial primary targets for their molecule CYB004.
Following trials for investigational new drug applications (INDs) as required by the FDA, upon successful completion, results will be submitted to regulatory agencies like the EMA to advance into Phase I studies . In October 2021, Cybin announced they had made significant progress in preparing CYB004 and another compound to treat alcohol use disorder (AUD), CYB003 .
While companies like MindMed and Cybin are directly focusing on anxiety disorders, other companies, like COMPASS Pathways, and research groups across the globe using psychedelics to treat depressive disorders are indirectly aiding anxiety research as these disorders are experienced comorbidly, more often than not .
As COVID-19 has exacerbated the demand for mental health services , the time is right to continue exploring and investing in the therapeutic application of psychedelic drugs for anxiety, and other mental health disorders, to advance the clinical trial process and improve the quality of life of millions of people on a global scale.
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These are the institutes, from companies to universities, who are working on Anxiety.
Enveric Biosciences is a publicly-traded biotechnology company predominantly focused on leveraging cannabinoids as treatments for cancer and oncology treatment-caused indications. They have recently expanded into the psychedelic space through the acquisition of MagicMed in September 2021.
Portland Psychotherapy is a clinic, research and training centre with a unique business model that funds scientific research.
Remedy is a psychotherapy clinic and research group helping people living with a range of mental health disorders.
Established in 2018 the Canadian Rapid Treatment Centre of Excellence offers ketamine therapy to aid those suffering from several treatment-resistant conditions such as depression and bipolar disorder.
Cybin is a for-profit company that aims to deliver psychedelics (psilocybin) via a sublingual delivery mechanism. The company aims to start clinical trials within the year (2021). It has raised $98 million US.
MindMed is one of the largest companies in the psychedelics space and is developing various psychedelics for mental health disorders.
COMPASS Pathways is a publicly listed company (NASDAQ) that aims to develop psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) for which it has completed a successful Phase IIb trial. It has gone public and has received substantial investment from atai.
MAPS stands for Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, it's the front runner in making psychedelics a legal way to use (and improve) in therapy.
The University of Basel Department of Biomedicine hosts the Liechti Lab research group, headed by Matthias Liechti.
Liechti Lab is headed by Matthias Liechti and is located at the University of Basil. The lab researches novel psychedelic substances, MDMA, and LSD. They have signed an exclusive partnership with MindMed.
These are some of the best-known people, from researchers to entrepreneurs, working on Anxiety.
Josh Woolley is an Associate Professor in Residence in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the UCSF. He is also the current Director of the Translational Psychedelic Research (TrPR) Program at UCSF.
Jason Luoma is a Co-founder and current Director of Portland Psychotherapy Clinic. He is a psychologist and researcher who is now exploring the therapeutic potential of MDMA in clinical trials.
Anna Beck is the Director of Supportive Oncology and Survivorship and an investigator at Huntsman Cancer Institute. She is the principal investigator on a trial using psilocybin in patients with cancer.
Lou A. Lukas is a family medicine doctor in Omaha, Nebraska and is affiliated with Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System-Omaha. She is acting as the principal investigator in a study using psilocybin to treat psychological distress associated with cancer.
Sanjay is a Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Director of the Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program at Baylor College of Medicine. He is currently exploring the use of ketamine in treating mood disorders.
Anne Wagner is the Founder of Remedy, a clinical psychologist and treatment development researcher based in Toronto.
Madeline Li is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network and a clinician-scientist in the Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care a the University of Toronto.
Peter Gasser has done work on LSD and life-threatening diseases in Switzerland since 2008. He is a psychiatrist, psychotherapist, and study lead, working in private practice.
Roland R. Griffiths is one of the strongest voices in psychedelics research. With over 400 journal articles under his belt and as one of the first researchers in the psychedelics renaissance, he has been a vital part of the research community.
Matthias Emanuel Liechti is the research group leader at the Liechti Lab at the University of Basel.
Rick Doblin Ph.D. is the founder of MAPS. His persistent work since 1986 has been one of the main drivers behind why psychedelics (including MDMA) are now coming back to therapy.
Dr Phil Wolfson the Director of the Center for Transformational Psychotherapy in California.
Linked Research Papers about Anxiety
The efficacy of psilocybin in the treatment of depression and anxiety: A meta-analysis
Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of ketamine in the treatment of refractory anxiety spectrum disorders
Prolonged epigenomic and synaptic plasticity alterations following single exposure to a psychedelic in mice
Ketamine for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial
Classic Psychedelic Use and Mechanisms of Mental Health: Exploring the Mediating Roles of Spirituality and Emotion Processing on Symptoms of Anxiety, Depressed Mood, and Disordered Eating in a Community Sample
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) used in a naturalistic group setting is associated with unintended improvements in depression and anxiety
How could MDMA (ecstasy) help anxiety disorders? A neurobiological rationale
LSD-assisted psychotherapy and the human encounter with death
Use of the Classic Hallucinogen Psilocybin for Treatment of Existential Distress Associated with Cancer
Sensitization to the prosocial effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
Therapeutic use of classic psychedelics to treat cancer-related psychiatric distress
Psychedelic drug assisted psychotherapy in patients with terminal cancer
Clonazepam treatment of lysergic acid diethylamide-induced hallucinogen persisting perception disorder with anxiety features
Exploring the therapeutic potential of Ayahuasca: acute intake increases mindfulness-related capacities
Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of serotonergic psychedelics for the management of mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders: a systematic review of systematic reviews
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of anxiety and other psychological distress related to life-threatening illnesses: a randomized pilot study
Persisting decreases in state and trait anxiety post-psilocybin: A naturalistic, observational study among retreat attendees
Effects of Naturalistic Psychedelic Use on Depression, Anxiety, and Well-Being: Associations With Patterns of Use, Reported Harms, and Transformative Mental States
Psychedelic Communitas: Intersubjective experience during psychedelic group sessions predicts enduring changes in psychological wellbeing and social connectedness
LSD in the supportive care of the terminally ill cancer patient
Acute psychoactive effects of intravenous ketamine during treatment of mood disorders: analysis of the Clinician Administered Dissociative State Scale
Attenuation and anticipation: A therapeutic use of lysergic acid diethylamide
Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) reverses stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, cortical synaptogenesis deficits and serotonergic neurotransmission decline
Past-Year Hallucinogen Use in Relation to Psychological Distress, Depression, and Suicidality among US Adults
Psilocybin for End-of-Life Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
MDMA-Assisted Therapy as a Means to Alter Affective, Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neurological Systems Underlying Social Dysfunction in Social Anxiety Disorder
Psychedelic mushrooms in the USA: Knowledge, patterns of use and association with health outcomes
Persisting effects of ayahuasca on empathy, creative thinking, decentering, personality, and well-being
Assessing the effects of methodological differences on outcomes in the use of psychedelics in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Sub-acute and long-term effects of ayahuasca on mental health and well-being in healthy ceremony attendants: A replication study
The effect of esketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression with and without comorbid anxiety symptoms or disorder
Exploring the Use of Psilocybin Therapy for Existential Distress: A Qualitative Study of Palliative Care Provider Perceptions
Psychedelic drug use and schizotypy in young adults
Real-world effectiveness of repeated ketamine infusions for treatment resistant depression during the COVID-19 pandemic
Ayahuasca Improves Self-perception of Speech Performance in Subjects With Social Anxiety Disorder: A Pilot, Proof-of-Concept, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Ceremonial Ayahuasca in Amazonian Retreats—Mental Health and Epigenetic Outcomes From a Six-Month Naturalistic Study
Registered clinical studies investigating psychedelic drugs for psychiatric disorders
Cross-sectional associations between lifetime use of psychedelic drugs and psychometric measures during the COVID-19 confinement: A transcultural study
Changes in self-rumination and self-compassion mediate the effect of psychedelic experiences on decreases in depression, anxiety, and stress
Influence of Context and Setting on the Mental Health and Wellbeing Outcomes of Ayahuasca Drinkers: Results of a Large International Survey
A Qualitative Study of Intention and Impact of Ayahuasca Use by Westerners
Psilocybin in end of life care: Implications for further research
Naturalistic Use of Mescaline Is Associated with Self-Reported Psychiatric Improvements and Enduring Positive Life Changes
A placebo-controlled study of the effects of ayahuasca, set and setting on mental health of participants in ayahuasca group retreats
Clinical and biological predictors of psychedelic response in the treatment of psychiatric and addictive disorders: a systematic review
Self-blinding citizen science to explore psychedelic microdosing
A quantitative exploration of the relationships between regular yoga practice, microdosing psychedelics, wellbeing and personality variables
Positive expectations predict improved mental-health outcomes linked to psychedelic microdosing
People of color in North America report improvements in racial trauma and mental health symptoms following psychedelic experiences
Psilocybin-Assisted Group Therapy and Attachment: Observed Reduction in Attachment Anxiety and Influences of Attachment Insecurity on the Psilocybin Experience
Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review of modern-era clinical studies
The Emerging Role of Psilocybin and MDMA in the Treatment of Mental Illness
Psychedelic Treatment for Trauma-Related Psychological and Cognitive Impairment Among US Special Operations Forces Veterans
Historic psychedelic drug trials and the treatment of anxiety disorders
A Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials of Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy
Integrating psychotherapy and psychopharmacology: psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy and other combined treatments
Psychedelic Psychiatry’s Brave New World
Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy
Perceived outcomes of psychedelic microdosing as self-managed therapies for mental and substance use disorders
The experimental effects of psilocybin on symptoms of anxiety and depression: A meta-analysis
Therapeutic Use of LSD in Psychiatry: A Systematic Review of Randomized-Controlled Clinical Trials
Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for psychiatric and existential distress in patients with life-threatening cancer
A rapid positive influence of S-ketamine on the anxiety of patients in palliative care: a retrospective pilot study
Psychological flexibility mediates the relations between acute psychedelic effects and subjective decreases in depression and anxiety
Prospective examination of synthetic 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhalation: effects on salivary IL-6, cortisol levels, affect, and non-judgment
Novel pharmacological targets in drug development for the treatment of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders
Embedding existential psychology within psychedelic science: reduced death anxiety as a mediator of the therapeutic effects of psychedelics.
Self-Rated Effectiveness of Microdosing With Psychedelics for Mental and Physical Health Problems Among Microdosers
A single inhalation of vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in a naturalistic setting is related to sustained enhancement of satisfaction with life, mindfulness-related capacities, and a decrement of psychopathological symptoms
Psychedelic-Assisted Group Therapy: A Systematic Review
Embracing Neurodiversity in Psychedelic Science: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry into the MDMA Experiences of Autistic Adults
Chronic, Intermittent Microdoses of the Psychedelic N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Produce Positive Effects on Mood and Anxiety in Rodents
Psychedelics and dying care: A historical look at the relationship between psychedelics and palliative care
Efficacy of intravenous ketamine treatment in anxious versus nonanxious unipolar treatment‐resistant depression
Possible Interactions Between 5-HT2A Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System in Humans: Preliminary Evidence of Interactive Effects of Ayahuasca and Endocannabinoids in a Healthy Human Subject
Psilocin and ketamine microdosing: effects of subchronic intermittent microdoses in the elevated plus-maze in male Wistar rats
Ketamine Effects on EEG during Therapy of Treatment-Resistant Generalized Anxiety and Social Anxiety
Effects of N, N-Dimethyltryptamine on Rat Behaviors Relevant to Anxiety and Depression
Individual Experiences in Four Cancer Patients Following Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy
Serotonergic hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from a life-threatening disease: A systematic review
Psychedelic Drugs in Biomedicine
Cancer at the dinner table: experiences of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of cancer-related distress
Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin
Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy: A Review of a Novel Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders
Modern clinical research on LSD
Ketamine’s dose-related effects on anxiety symptoms in patients with treatment refractory anxiety disorders
Anxiety, panic, and hopelessness during and after ritual ayahuasca intake in a woman with generalized anxiety disorder: A case report
MDMA does not alter responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in humans
Patient Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
Altered insula connectivity under MDMA
Antidepressant, anxiolytic and procognitive effects of subacute and chronic ketamine in the chronic mild stress model of depression
Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized controlled trial
Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer
Classical hallucinogens and neuroimaging: A systematic review of human studies: hallucinogens and neuroimaging
Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing
Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of ‘use’?
Ayahuasca: pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential
MDMA-assisted therapy: A new treatment model for social anxiety in autistic adults
Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies
Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats
Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report
LSD-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with a life-threatening disease: a qualitative study of acute and sustained subjective effects
Safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases
From Hofmann to the Haight Ashbury, and into the Future: The Past and Potential of Lysergic Acid Diethlyamide
The Heffter Research Institute: Past and Hopeful Future
The peak experience variable in DPT-assisted psychotherapy with cancer patients
Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment
Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer