284 million people affected worldwide 1

Anxiety disorders are the worlds most prevalent mental health disorders. These disorders are some of the debilitating disorders and shoulder a significant economic burden. The COVID-19 pandemic has severely increased the prevalence of anxiety disorders, with an additional 53 million cases of anxiety thought to be directly linked to the pandemic.

Current Treatments 1

Conventional anxiety treatments include medications like SSRIs, SNRIs and anxiolytics like benzodiazepines. These medications are used in tandem with psychotherapy. Unfortunately, it is estimated that 40% of people with anxiety do not respond to treatment.

Psychedelic research currently is in Phase IIb

Research into utilizing the potential of psychedelics to treat anxiety disorders is underway. Several double-blind placebo-controlled studies have been done to date. Several ongoing studies are in Phase IIb which should provide more evidence for the effectiveness of psychedelics for anxiety.

Key Insights

  • Anxiety disorders are the worlds most prevalent mental health disorders, affecting roughly 300 million people globally and accounting for 3.4% of all years lived with disability (YLD)
  • Several psychedelics are showing promise for treating the various forms of anxiety. It is often experienced alongside depression and is a symptom in PTSD. Therefore, anxiety is also often measured in trials using psychedelics to treat other disorders. Early trials with psilocybin and MDMA are proving to be effective in alleviating symptoms of anxiety.
  • Anxiety disorders are the target of a number of companies. MindMed is working with the team at the University of Basel to explore the potential of using LSD to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cybin has is investigating both social anxiety disorder (SAD) and GAD as the target of their proprietary CYB004 molecule.

Author: Iain Burgess is a researcher at Blossom. He studied Global Health (M.Sc.) and Physiology (B.Sc.) and has researched the various scientific, societal, cultural and political dynamics that have shaped our understanding of psychedelics throughout history in wake of prospective medicalization.

What is anxiety?

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension and worrying thoughts [1]. Experiencing occasional anxiety in response to stressful situations is a normal part of life as it can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention [2].

However, an array of anxiety disorders exist, and there are estimated to be over 284 million people experiencing anxiety disorders across the globe. With such a large number of people experiencing anxiety disorders, they are now the most prevalent mental health disorders globally and account for 3.4% of all years lived with a disability (YLDs) [3].

Types of anxiety disorders include; generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and PTSD are also understood to be anxiety disorders, these are covered in separate articles.

According to the DSM-V (a manual for assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders), anxiety disorders are generally diagnosed when a person experiences symptoms including; the presence of excessive anxiety and worry about a variety of topics, events, or activities for periods longer than six months, the worry or distress interferes with daily living and other symptoms such as edginess or restlessness, irritability and sleep disturbances [4].

Given the nature of these disorders, anxiety is often experienced alongside depression, with both disorders shouldering a significant global economic burden [5]. Common anxiety treatments include medications like SSRIs, SNRIs (both antidepressants) and anxiolytics like benzodiazepines.

Medication used in tandem with psychotherapy is often considered a fundamental aspect of treatment [6]. Unfortunately, many people do not respond adequately to these conventional treatments [7]. It is estimated that around 40% of patients with anxiety don’t respond to treatments.

With psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy tipped to be the next big treatment model in mental health care, research into the potential of psychedelic drugs to treat anxiety disorders is well underway.

Psychedelics and Anxiety

Psychedelics including psilocybin, LSD, MDMA and ketamine are showing great promise with regards to alleviating the symptoms of various anxiety disorders. Clinical trials involving these substances are taking place across the globe, each at various stages of the clinical trial process.

Both psilocybin and MDMA have been shown to be effective in treating end-of-life anxiety (ELA), a common occurrence for most patients in palliative care [8]. One of the many endeavours of MAPS is a recent Phase II trial led by Phil Wolfson. In the trial, patients experiencing ELA were administered 125mg of MDMA in combination with two eight-hour psychotherapy sessions.

At the end of this trial, the MDMA group had a greater mean reduction in STAI-Trait scores (a common checklist used to measure anxiety) when compared to the control group. With MDMA being awarded ‘breakthrough therapy’ status by the FDA in 2017 for the treatment of PTSD, in which severe anxiety is a major symptom, the use of MDMA to treat anxiety disorders may soon follow suit. 

A 2018 double-blind placebo-controlled trial exploring the effects of using MDMA-assisted therapy to treat social anxiety in autistic adults yielded promising results. Led by Alicia Danforth and Charles Grob, this pilot study found a significant reduction in social anxiety following two MDMA-assisted therapy sessions in which eight participants received 75 to 125 mg of MDMA. Noteworthily, improvements in social anxiety remained the same, even continuing to improve slightly, in the MDMA group at the six-month follow-up [9].

“We believe MDMA-Assisted therapy is particularly well-situated to be a novel, efficient, and effective intervention to help individuals with SAD alleviate psychological suffering and improve social functioning.”

Lear & Luoma, 2021

Roland Griffiths and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins reported similar reductions in symptoms of both anxiety and depression in a Phase II study upon administering varying doses of psilocybin to patients experiencing ELA [10]. Furthermore, 80% of participants in this study continued to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety at the six-month follow-up.

Further evidence for the efficacy of using psilocybin to treat ELA is provided by Chia-Ling Yu and colleagues [11]. Their recently published (2021) systematic review of five studies using psilocybin to treat ELA found that psilocybin-assisted therapy could ameliorate ELA symptoms without serious adverse events and, that these effects were far superior to that of the placebo. In addition, psilocybin exhibited effectiveness in managing anxiety at the time points of 1 day and 1, 3, and 6 months after a single treatment session [11].

Paul Liknaitzky has also just announced that Monash University will lead the world’s first trial investigating psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy to treat generalised anxiety disorder specifically. The study has just passed through ethics approval and will start in 2022.

“High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety … and decreases in death anxiety. At 6-month follow-up, these changes were sustained, with about 80% of participants continuing to show clinically significant decreases in depressed mood and anxiety.”

Griffiths et al. 2016

Another psychedelic drug that has re-emerged in recent years and is making headway for its ability to treat anxiety is ketamine. Ketamine stands alone in the world of psychedelics given that it is readily available and accessible off-label for those with both depressive and anxiety disorders. In a study of 12 patients with refractory generalized anxiety disorder and/or social anxiety disorder who were not depressed, ten of the 12 participants (83%) found relief within one hour of a single ketamine infusion, and this relief lasted for up to seven days [12].

In 2017, Jerome Taylor and colleagues investigated the effects of ketamine in 18 adults with social anxiety disorder. A significant reduction in anxiety was observed in those who received intravenous ketamine (0.5mg/kg over 40 min) when compared to the control group. While reductions were observed when using the Lebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the contrary was true on the self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS-anxiety). The researchers attributed this observation to inadequate blinding as 17 of the 18 participants correctly identified if they received ketamine [13]. Issues surrounding blinding are continuing to create problems for researchers across all areas of psychedelic science.

A retrospective pilot study involving eight patients in palliative care found that treatment with esketamine, sold under the brand name Spravato, had a positive impact while they were receiving therapy for pain. The study found that esketamine reduced psychological distress in these patients and that this positive effect is primarily related to reductions in symptoms of anxiety, measured using the STAID. Interestingly, the effect ketamine had on measures of depression were mild in comparison to the anxiolytic effects [14].

Ketamine is usually administered intravenously within a clinical environment and has the ability to rapidly alleviate anxiety-related symptoms [15]. Given its availability, many ketamine clinics exist in many major US cities whilst in EuropeOvid Clinic (Germany), Awakn, and Save Minds (United Kingdom) are some of the few available options.

Although promising, double-blind, placebo-controlled (RCT) studies are still few and far between

How might psychedelics treat anxiety?

As is the case with many psychedelics, the exact mechanisms by which they act remain speculative [16]. Here are the key psychedelics and the main mechanisms through which they can help alleviate anxiety. These mechanisms are somewhat simplified for clarity.

In the case of MDMA, it acts in the brain by binding to the serotonin transporter after which it is transported into the nerve terminal thereby stimulating the release of serotonin, the key neurotransmitter that stabilizes our mood, feelings of well-being, and happiness [17]. By stimulating the release and reuptake of serotonin as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, people feel more open, have a greater sense of empathy, sensory pleasure and less anxiety.

Psilocybin is a 5HT-2A receptor agonist, stimulating the release of serotonin in the brain through a mechanism of action different to MDMA [18].

Both MDMA and psilocybin are believed to reduce activity in the amygdala, a region of the brain associated with the regulation of emotions, reducing this region’s response to negative emotional stimuli [10].

Additionally, psilocybin is thought to “turn off” the default mode network (DMN) in turn, disrupting the brain circuitry underlying mental disorders like anxiety [19]. The DMN is a collection of neural pathways that govern our self-image, our autobiographical memories, and our deeply ingrained beliefs and thought patterns [20]. Thus, by disrupting the neural circuitry in this region, psilocybin allows people to alter the ingrained beliefs and thought patterns that may be underlying their anxiety.

In doing so, these psychedelic drugs reduce anxiety in the face of emotionally challenging thoughts with patients reporting overall increases in their quality of life which they attribute to these psychedelic therapy sessions.

Ketamine exerts its effects through a different mechanism of action. Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. Its anxiolytic effects are presumed to occur through increasing secretion and translation of brain-derived neurotrophic growth fact (BDNF) which, in turn, activates synaptic plasticity i.e strengthening the connection between neurons [21].

The impact ketamine has on plasticity is rapid, occurring within hours of administration. Although the ability of ketamine to alleviate symptoms of anxiety may be rapid, the anxiolytic effects are transient when compared to classic psychedelics such as psilocybin, lasting in the region of one to two weeks [22].

“Ketamine may be a potential therapeutic alternative for patients with refractory generalized anxiety disorder/social anxiety disorder.”

Glue et al. 2017

Notwithstanding, it is worth noting that side effects associated with the use of ketamine exist. A review of 60 articles in which ketamine was used to treat depression identified that headache, dizziness, dissociation, elevated blood pressure, and blurred vision were the most common in response to intravenous infusion. Furthermore, the most common acute psychiatric side-effect was anxiety [23]. Thus, long-term large-scale clinical trials are needed in order to assess the safety of the long-term regular use of ketamine.

Psychedelic industry and anxiety

As psychedelics are gradually entering the mainstream, several companies have entered the field with hopes to use psychedelic drugs to treat anxiety.

One such company is the New York-based MindMed which has raised over $200 million since the founding of the company in 2019. In 2020, MindMed launched Project Lucy in collaboration with Dr Matthias Liechti and Dr Peter Gasser and their team at University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Project Lucy is exclusively dedicated to exploring the potential of LSD to treat anxiety disorders, with Phase IIa trials nearing completion.

Project Lucy builds on the work of Dr Gasser, who in 2014 led a team of researchers, including Rick Doblin, as they carried out one of the first double-blind placebo-controlled trials (n=12) investigating the safety and efficacy of using LSD to treat end-of-life anxiety. The results of this trial demonstrated that when administered safely in a methodologically rigorous supervised psychotherapeutic setting, LSD can reduce anxiety [24].

Cybin is also focusing on progressing psychedelic therapeutics from Toronto, Canada. Prior to commencing trading on the NYSE as of August 2021, Cybin had raised over $88 million and has filed 13 patent applications for synthetic derivatives of psychedelic compounds like psilocybin and DMT. Cybin has chosen both social and generalized anxiety disorders as the initial primary targets for their molecule CYB004.

Following trials for investigational new drug applications (INDs) as required by the FDA, upon successful completion results will be submitted to regulatory agencies like the EMA in the hope of advancing into Phase I studies [25]. In October 2021, Cybin announced they have made significant progress in preparing CYB004 and another compound for the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD), CYB003 [26].

While companies like MindMed and Cybin are directly focusing on anxiety disorders, other companies, like COMPASS Pathways, and research groups across the globe using psychedelics to treat depressive disorders are indirectly aiding anxiety research as these disorders are experienced comorbidly, more often than not [27].

As COVID-19 has exacerbated the demand for mental health services [28], the time is right to continue exploring and investing in the therapeutic application of psychedelic drugs for anxiety, and other mental health disorders, in order to advance the clinical trial process and improve the quality of life of millions of people on a global scale.

References

1. American Psychological Association. (n.d). Anxiety. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/topics/anxiety

2. American Psychiatric Association. (2021). Anxiety Disorders. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/anxiety-disorders/what-are-anxiety-disorders

3. Ritchie, H., & Rosser, M. (2018). Mental Health – Anxiety. Oxford: Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/mental-health

4. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety Disorder – Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. doi:https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

5. DeVane, L., Chiao, E., Franklin, M., & Kruep, E. (2005). Anxiety Disorders in the 21st Century: Status, Challenges, Opportunities, and Comorbidity With Depression. The American Journal of Managed Care, s344-s353. Retrieved from https://www.ajmc.com/view/oct05-2158ps344-s353

6. Casarella, J. (2020). Understanding Generalized Anxiety Disorder — Diagnosis and Treatment. New York: WebMD. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/understanding-anxiety-treatment

7. Bystritsky, A. (2006). Treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. Molecular Psychiatry, 805-814. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/4001852#citeas

8. Wolfson, P. E., Andries, J., Feduccia, A. A., Jerome, L., Wang, J. B., Williams, E., Carlin, S. C., Sola, E., Hamilton, S., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Emerson, A., Mithoefer, M. C., & Doblin, R. (2020). MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of anxiety and other psychological distress related to life-threatening illnesses: a randomized pilot study. Scientific Reports 2020 10:1, 10(1), 1–15

9. Danforth, A., Grob, C., Struble, C., Feduccia, A., Walker, N., Jerome, L., . . . Emerson, A. (2018). Reduction in social anxiety after MDMA-assisted psychotherapy with autistic adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Psychopharmacology.

10. Griffiths, R. R., Johnson, M. W., Carducci, M. A., Umbricht, A., Richards, W. A., Richards, B. D., Cosimano, M. P., & Klinedinst, M. A. (2017). Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized double-blind trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(12), 1181–1197.

11. Yu, C.-L., Yang, F.-C., Yang, S.-N., Tseng, P.-T., Stubbs, B., Yeh, T.-C., . . . Sung-Liang, C. (2021). Psilocybin for End-of-Life Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychiatry Investigation.

12. Glue, P., Medlicott, N., Harland, S., Neehoff, S., Anderson-Fahey, B., Le Nedelec, M., . . . McNaughton, N. (2017). Ketamine’s dose-related effects on anxiety symptoms in patients with treatment refractory anxiety disorders. Journal of Psychopharmacology.

13. Taylor, J., Landeros-Weisenberger, A., Coughlin, C., Mulqueen, J., Johnson, J., Gabriel, D., . . . Bloch, M. (2018). Ketamine for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial. Neuropsychopharmacology

14. Falk, E., Schlieper, D., van Caster, P., Lutterbeck, M., Schwartz, J., Cordes, J., . . . Neukirchen, M. (2020). A rapid positive influence of S-ketamine on the anxiety of patients in palliative care: a retrospective pilot study. BMC Palliative Care.

15. Meisner, R. (2019). Ketamine for major depression: New tool, new questions. Cambridge MA: Harvard Health Publishing. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/ketamine-for-major-depression-new-tool-new-questions-2019052216673

16. Nichols, D. E. (2016). Psychedelics. Pharmacological Reviews, 68(2), 264–355.

17. Australian Department of Health. (2004). Pharmacology of MDMA. Canberra: Australian Department of Health. Retrieved from https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-toc~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-2~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-2-3~drugtreat-pubs-modpsy-2-3-pmdm

18. Carhart-Harris, R. L., Erritzoe, D., Williams, T., Stone, J. M., Reed, L. J., Colasanti, A., Tyacke, R. J., Leech, R., Malizia, A. L., Murphy, K., Hobden, P., Evans, J., Feilding, A., Wise, R. G., & Nutt, D. J. (2012). Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(6), 2138–2143.

19. Nutt, D. (2019). Psychedelic drugs—a new era in psychiatry? Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 21(2), 139–147.

20. Buckner, R., Andrews-Hanna, J., & Schacter, D. (2008). The brain’s default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of The New York Academy of Sciences. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18400922/

21. Schwartz, J., Murrough, J., & Iosifescu, D. (2016). Ketamine for treatment-resistant depression: recent developments and clinical applications. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 35-38.

22. Liriano, F., Hatten, C., & Schwartz, T. (2019). Ketamine as treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder: a review. Drugs In Context.

23. Short, B., Fong, J., Galvez, V., Shelker, W., & Loo, C. (2018). Side-effects associated with ketamine use in depression: a systematic review. The Lancet Psychiatry.

24. Gasser, P., Holstein, D., Michel, Y., Doblin, R., Yazar-Klosinski, B., Passie, T., & Brenneisen, R. (2014). Safety and Efficacy of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-Assisted Psychotherapy for Anxiety Associated With Life-threatening Diseases. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases.

25. Cybin. (2021). Cybin Advances IND-Enabling Studies of Two Psychedelic Molecules, CYB003 and CYB004 for Investigational New Drug Applications. Toronto: Cybin Press Release. Retrieved from https://www.cybin.com/press-release/cybin-advances-ind-enabling-studies-of-two-psychedelic-molecules-cyb003-and-cyb004-for-investigational-new-drug-applications

26. Wire, B. (2021). Cybin Announces Completion of 74 Pre-Clinical Psychedelic Molecule Studies. Business Wire. Retrieved from https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20211019005347/en/Cybin-Announces-Completion-of-74-Pre-Clinical-Psychedelic-Molecule-Studies

27. Hirschfeld, R. (2001). The Comorbidity of Major Depression and Anxiety Disorders: Recognition and Management in Primary Care. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 244-254. Retrieved from doi:https://dx.doi.org/10.4088%2Fpcc.v03n0609

28. World Health Organization. (2020). COVID-19 disrupting mental health services in most countries, WHO survey. World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news/item/05-10-2020-covid-19-disrupting-mental-health-services-in-most-countries-who-survey

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Highlighted Institutes

These are the institutes, from companies to unversities, who are working on Anxiety.

Cybin

Cybin is a for-profit company that aims to deliver psychedelics (psilocybin) via a sublingual delivery mechanism. The company aims to start clinical trials within the year (2021). It has raised $45 million Canadian.

MindMed

MindMed is one of the largest companies in the psychedelics space and is developing various psychedelics for mental health disorders.

Compass Pathways

COMPASS Pathways is a subsidiary of ATAI that aims to develop psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression. It (will soon) go public as the largest psychedelics IPO to date.

MAPS

MAPS stands for Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, it's the front runner in making psychedelics a legal way to use (and improve) in therapy.

University of Basel

The University of Basel Department of Biomedicine hosts the Liechti Lab research group, headed by Matthias Liechti.

Liechti Lab

Liechti Lab is headed by Matthias Liechti and is located at the University of Basil. The lab researches novel psychedelic substances, MDMA, and LSD. They have signed an exclusive partnership with MindMed.

Highlighted People

These are some of the best-known people, from researchers to entrepreneurs, working on Anxiety.

Peter Gasser

Peter Gasser has done work on LSD and life-threatening diseases in Switzerland since 2008. He is a psychiatrist, psychotherapist, and study lead, working in private practice.

Roland Griffiths

Roland R. Griffiths is one of the strongest voices in psychedelics research. With over 400 journal articles under his belt and as one of the first researchers in the psychedelics renaissance, he has been a vital part of the research community.

Matthias Liechti

Matthias Emanuel Liechti is the research group leader at the Liechti Lab at the University of Basel.

Rick Doblin

Rick Doblin Ph.D. is the founder of MAPS. His persistent work since 1986 has been one of the main drivers behind why psychedelics (including MDMA) are now coming back to therapy.

Phil Wolfson

Dr Phil Wolfson the Director of the Center for Transformational Psychotherapy in California.

Linked Research Papers about Anxiety

Psilocybin for End-of-Life Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

MDMA-Assisted Therapy as a Means to Alter Affective, Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neurological Systems Underlying Social Dysfunction in Social Anxiety Disorder

Psychedelic mushrooms in the USA: Knowledge, patterns of use and association with health outcomes

Persisting effects of ayahuasca on empathy, creative thinking, decentering, personality, and well-being

Assessing the effects of methodological differences on outcomes in the use of psychedelics in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Sub-acute and long-term effects of ayahuasca on mental health and well-being in healthy ceremony attendants: A replication study

The effect of esketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression with and without comorbid anxiety symptoms or disorder

Exploring the Use of Psilocybin Therapy for Existential Distress: A Qualitative Study of Palliative Care Provider Perceptions

Using Psychedelics With Therapeutic Intent Is Associated With Lower Shame and Complex Trauma Symptoms in Adults With Histories of Child Maltreatment

Psychedelic drug use and schizotypy in young adults

Real-world effectiveness of repeated ketamine infusions for treatment resistant depression during the COVID-19 pandemic

Ayahuasca Improves Self-perception of Speech Performance in Subjects With Social Anxiety Disorder: A Pilot, Proof-of-Concept, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Ceremonial Ayahuasca in Amazonian Retreats—Mental Health and Epigenetic Outcomes From a Six-Month Naturalistic Study

Registered clinical studies investigating psychedelic drugs for psychiatric disorders

Cross-sectional associations between lifetime use of psychedelic drugs and psychometric measures during the COVID-19 confinement: A transcultural study

An analog of psychedelics restores functional neural circuits disrupted by unpredictable stress

Changes in self-rumination and self-compassion mediate the effect of psychedelic experiences on decreases in depression, anxiety, and stress

Lifetime use of psychedelics is associated with better mental health indicators during the COVID-19 pandemic

Influence of Context and Setting on the Mental Health and Wellbeing Outcomes of Ayahuasca Drinkers: Results of a Large International Survey

A Qualitative Study of Intention and Impact of Ayahuasca Use by Westerners

Psilocybin in end of life care: Implications for further research

Naturalistic Use of Mescaline Is Associated with Self-Reported Psychiatric Improvements and Enduring Positive Life Changes

A placebo-controlled study of the effects of ayahuasca, set and setting on mental health of participants in ayahuasca group retreats

Clinical and biological predictors of psychedelic response in the treatment of psychiatric and addictive disorders: a systematic review

Self-blinding citizen science to explore psychedelic microdosing

A quantitative exploration of the relationships between regular yoga practice, microdosing psychedelics, wellbeing and personality variables

Positive expectations predict improved mental-health outcomes linked to psychedelic microdosing

People of color in North America report improvements in racial trauma and mental health symptoms following psychedelic experiences

Psilocybin-Assisted Group Therapy and Attachment: Observed Reduction in Attachment Anxiety and Influences of Attachment Insecurity on the Psilocybin Experience

Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review of modern-era clinical studies

The Emerging Role of Psilocybin and MDMA in the Treatment of Mental Illness

Psychedelic Treatment for Trauma-Related Psychological and Cognitive Impairment Among US Special Operations Forces Veterans

Historic psychedelic drug trials and the treatment of anxiety disorders

A Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials of Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy

Integrating psychotherapy and psychopharmacology: psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy and other combined treatments

Psychedelic Psychiatry’s Brave New World

Natural Psychoplastogens As Antidepressant Agents

Microdosing psychedelics: Demographics, practices, and psychiatric comorbidities.

Psychedelics and Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy

Perceived outcomes of psychedelic microdosing as self-managed therapies for mental and substance use disorders

The experimental effects of psilocybin on symptoms of anxiety and depression: A meta-analysis

Therapeutic Use of LSD in Psychiatry: A Systematic Review of Randomized-Controlled Clinical Trials

Long-term follow-up of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for psychiatric and existential distress in patients with life-threatening cancer

A rapid positive influence of S-ketamine on the anxiety of patients in palliative care: a retrospective pilot study

Psychological flexibility mediates the relations between acute psychedelic effects and subjective decreases in depression and anxiety

Prospective examination of synthetic 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine inhalation: effects on salivary IL-6, cortisol levels, affect, and non-judgment

Novel pharmacological targets in drug development for the treatment of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders

Embedding existential psychology within psychedelic science: reduced death anxiety as a mediator of the therapeutic effects of psychedelics.

Distinct acute effects of LSD, MDMA, and D-amphetamine in healthy subjects.

Self-Rated Effectiveness of Microdosing With Psychedelics for Mental and Physical Health Problems Among Microdosers

The Viability of Microdosing Psychedelics as a Strategy to Enhance Cognition and Well-being – An Early Review

A single inhalation of vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in a naturalistic setting is related to sustained enhancement of satisfaction with life, mindfulness-related capacities, and a decrement of psychopathological symptoms

Psychedelic-Assisted Group Therapy: A Systematic Review

Might Microdosing Psychedelics Be Safe and Beneficial? An Initial Exploration

Embracing Neurodiversity in Psychedelic Science: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry into the MDMA Experiences of Autistic Adults

Chronic, Intermittent Microdoses of the Psychedelic N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) Produce Positive Effects on Mood and Anxiety in Rodents

Psychedelics and dying care: A historical look at the relationship between psychedelics and palliative care

Efficacy of intravenous ketamine treatment in anxious versus nonanxious unipolar treatment‐resistant depression

Possible Interactions Between 5-HT2A Receptors and the Endocannabinoid System in Humans: Preliminary Evidence of Interactive Effects of Ayahuasca and Endocannabinoids in a Healthy Human Subject

Psilocin and ketamine microdosing: effects of subchronic intermittent microdoses in the elevated plus-maze in male Wistar rats

Production Options for Psilocybin: Making of the Magic

Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine

The Use of Salvia divinorum from a Mazatec Perspective

Ketamine Effects on EEG during Therapy of Treatment-Resistant Generalized Anxiety and Social Anxiety

Effects of N, N-Dimethyltryptamine on Rat Behaviors Relevant to Anxiety and Depression

Individual Experiences in Four Cancer Patients Following Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy

Serotonergic hallucinogens in the treatment of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from a life-threatening disease: A systematic review

Psychedelic Drugs in Biomedicine

Cancer at the dinner table: experiences of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for the treatment of cancer-related distress

Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin

Direct comparison of the acute subjective, emotional, autonomic, and endocrine effects of MDMA, methylphenidate, and modafinil in healthy subjects

Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy: A Review of a Novel Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders

Modern clinical research on LSD

Ketamine’s dose-related effects on anxiety symptoms in patients with treatment refractory anxiety disorders

Anxiety, panic, and hopelessness during and after ritual ayahuasca intake in a woman with generalized anxiety disorder: A case report

MDMA does not alter responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in humans

Patient Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

Altered insula connectivity under MDMA

Antidepressant, anxiolytic and procognitive effects of subacute and chronic ketamine in the chronic mild stress model of depression

Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized controlled trial

Psilocybin produces substantial and sustained decreases in depression and anxiety in patients with life-threatening cancer

Classical hallucinogens and neuroimaging: A systematic review of human studies: hallucinogens and neuroimaging

Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing

Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of ‘use’?

Ayahuasca: pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential

MDMA-assisted therapy: A new treatment model for social anxiety in autistic adults

Antidepressive and anxiolytic effects of ayahuasca: a systematic literature review of animal and human studies

Effects of Long-Term Ayahuasca Administration on Memory and Anxiety in Rats

Noribogaine is a G-Protein Biased κ-Opioid Receptor Agonist

Psychedelics not linked to mental health problems or suicidal behavior: A population study.

Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report

LSD-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with a life-threatening disease: a qualitative study of acute and sustained subjective effects

Safety and efficacy of lysergic acid diethylamide-assisted psychotherapy for anxiety associated with life-threatening diseases

From Hofmann to the Haight Ashbury, and into the Future: The Past and Potential of Lysergic Acid Diethlyamide

The Heffter Research Institute: Past and Hopeful Future

Replication of Ketamine’s Antidepressant Efficacy in Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Controlled Add-On Trial

The peak experience variable in DPT-assisted psychotherapy with cancer patients

Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment

Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer