Beck Depression Inventory

The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) contains 21 self-report items, completed using a multiple-choice format. Scores range from 0-63 with higher scores associated with more severe depression.

Find out more about Beck Depression Inventory

Alternative name
BDI
BDI-21

Active? Yes

First used: 01 January 1970

Related Topic

Depression
Depression impacts over 260 million people. It is the most extensively studied disorder in the world of psychedelics with psilocybin, ketamine and DMT all showing promise.

Related Papers

Pilot study of psilocybin treatment for anxiety in patients with advanced-stage cancer
This is the first (modern) double-blind placebo-controlled study (n=12) of psilocybin (14mg/70kg) for the treatment of (end-of-life) anxiety (and depression) related to cancer. Treatment led to a significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety up to 3 months after treatment and improvements in depressive symptoms reached significance after 6 months.

Single-dose psilocybin-assisted therapy in major depressive disorder: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised clinical trial
This double-blind placebo-controlled study (n=56) found that one psilocybin-assisted therapy (16mg/70kg, 2 prep + 3 integration meetings) session significantly reduced depressive symptoms (MADRS & BDI) in those suffering from a major depressive disorder (MDD, n=26). Fourteen days after the intervention, 54% of those in the psilocybin group met remission criteria (<10 on MADRS).

Increased global integration in the brain after psilocybin therapy for depression
This fMRI study assessed the impact of psilocybin on brain function in two clinical trials of depression. In both trials, the antidepressant response to psilocybin was rapid and sustained, correlating with decreases in fMRI brain network modularity. Network cartography analyses indicated that serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor-rich higher-order functional networks became more functionally interconnected and flexible after a psilocybin treatment. Together, the findings from both studies point to global increases in brain network integration as an antidepressant mechanism in psilocybin therapy.

Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: A randomized controlled trial
This double-blind placebo-controlled study (n=29) for those suffering from anxiety and depression, related to cancer, improved significantly (60-80% of participants) after a single dose of psilocybin (21mg/70kg) in combination with psychotherapy.

Related Trials

Clinical, Neurocognitive, and Emotional Effects of Psilocybin in Depressed Patients - Proof of Concept
Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation by psilocybin on mood and emotion processing in major depressive disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

LSD Therapy for Persons Suffering From Major Depression
To test the efficacy of LSD in patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

miRNAs, Suicide, and Ketamine - Plasma Exosomal microRNAs as Novel Biomarkers for Suicidality and Treatment Outcome
The purpose of this study is to examine whether neural-derived exosomal miRNAs are differentially expressed that are specific to suicidal ideation or behavior, and which by affecting specific miRNA targets and pathways, are associated with suicidal behavior and response to ketamine.

Ketamine Alcohol (in Treatment-Resistant Depression)
This open-label trial (n=60) tests the hypothesis that ketamine (35mg/70kg) infusion will be especially effective in those who have a family history of alcohol abuse (Family History Positive, FHP).

Additional MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy for People Who Relapsed After MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy Trial
This study will consist of a single session of MDMA-assisted therapy with a full dose of MDMA for people who took part in a study of MDMA-assisted therapy in people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) whose PTSD symptoms returned to higher levels at least a year after the first MDMA sessions. The single session will be performed by the same pair of therapists who performed the sessions in the first study. People will have a preparatory session, the MDMA-assisted session and three non-drug sessions afterward. Their PTSD symptoms and symptoms of depression will be measured at the start of this study and two and 12 months after the session.

NMDA Antagonists in Bipolar Depression
The purpose of this study is to test whether ketamine and D-cycloserine can be safely and effectively used for the treatment of depression. The investigators hypothesize that ketamine will serve as a rapid acting and safe antidepressant in patients with bipolar depression, and furthermore, that D-cycloserine will serve as an effective therapy following ketamine treatment.

Study of Safety and Effects of MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy for Treatment of PTSD
This multi-site, open-label, Phase 2, lead-in study assesses the safety and effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy in participants diagnosed with at least severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy for Anxiety Associated With a Life-threatening Illness
This Phase 2 pilot study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 18 participants comparing the effects of MDMA-assisted therapy vs. placebo with therapy.

The Role of HNKs in the Antidepressant Effect of Ketamine
The objective of the proposed study is to examine the relationship between serum concentrations of HNK and changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Profile of Mood States (POMS), as well as glutamatergic/GABAergic response.

Ketamine in Adolescents With Treatment-Resistant Depression
This study will test the use of ketamine for treatment of depression in adolescents that have not responded to other treatments. We will also examine neurobiological mechanisms of treatment.

Effects of Psilocybin in Advanced-Stage Cancer Patients With Anxiety
This double-blind cross-over trial (n=12) investigates the effects of psilocybin (14mg/70kg) on advanced-stage cancer patients experiencing anxiety.

A Study to Decrease Suicidal Thinking Using Ketamine
This project proposes to conduct a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of using ketamine to treat military patients recently hospitalized for suicidal thinking.

Dose-Response Study of MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy in People With PTSD
This Phase 2 pilot study examined the safety and efficacy of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in 23 subjects with chronic, treatment-resistant PTSD. 

Study Where Pharmaco Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Effects of AZD6765 Will be Compared to Placebo in Depressive Male and Female Subjects
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a single dose infusion of AZD 6765 compared with placebo and ketamine on the blood oxygen level dependent signal using fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in depressed subjects.

Ketamine as a Rapidly-Acting Antidepressant in Depressed Emergency Department Patients
This study plans to explore the potential that ketamine's rapid antidepressant action holds for improving outcomes in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with severe depression.

Randomized, Double-blind, Active Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy in People With Chronic PTSD
This Phase 2 pilot study assessed the safety and efficacy of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in 10 people with chronic, treatment-resistant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), comparing the effects of low and full dose MDMA as an adjunct to psychotherapy.

Frontline Clinician Psilocybin Study
We aim to investigate the effects of a single dose of psilocybin, delivered in the context of pre- and post-dose psychotherapy, on symptoms of depression and burnout suffered by healthcare clinicians as a result of frontline work in the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID) pandemic.

Double-Blind Trial of Ketamine Therapy Plus or Minus Naltrexone in Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)
The primary objective is to determine if the opioid properties of ketamine are responsible for its antidepressant effects. Since naltrexone can block opiate actions, the investigators will determine if naltrexone can effectively block ketamine's effects.

Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled of MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy in 12 Subjects With PTSD
This small ("pilot") study is designed to provide information on whether the combination of psychotherapy with the drug MDMA is safe and helpful for people with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The researchers will use the results of this study to design more studies of this treatment. The study compares a comparator (placebo) and a full dose.

Evaluating the Feasibility, Safety and Efficacy of Psychotherapy Assisted Psilocybin for Treatment of Severe OCD
The purpose of the current study is to explore new alternative options for the treatment of OCD that can widely and continuously benefit patients. Specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of severe OCD. 

Long-term Observation of Participants With Mood Disorders
To learn the long-term impact of depression, bipolar disorder, and suicide risk.

The Effects of MDMA on Prefrontal and Amygdala Activation in PTSD


LSD Treatment in Persons Suffering From Anxiety Symptoms in Severe Somatic Diseases or in Psychiatric Anxiety Disorders
To test the efficacy of LSD in patients with anxiety with or without life-threatening diseases.

Efficacy of Psilocybin in OCD: a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
This study aims to investigate the effects of oral psilocybin on OCD symptomatology and provide the first evidence of the neural mechanism that may mediate psilocybin's purported therapeutic effects on OCD.