Know where to get started
when learning more about psychedelics (research)
Research into psychedelics has been ongoing since the 1950s in a scientific context. LSD and MDMA were two of the tools that many psychiatrists had available in those early days. Unfortunately, many of the clinical experiments were shut down between 1970 and 2000 as psychedelics were included in the Controlled Substances Act. But persistent researchers and NGOs continue(d) to advocate for research with these compounds.
Regulations around psychedelics are still very strict in most countries and research is therefore much more expensive than it should be. Still, many experiments and trials have been done again in the last 20 years. MDMA and psilocybin are now poised to become medicines, ketamine is already being used off-label for the treatment of depression, and many other psychedelics are being researched for medical use.
Psychedelics research is being championed by the following research institutes & NGOs and researchers.
The organizations and people above are, in large part, responsible for the revival of research into psychedelics. Nowadays there are tens of publications on psychedelics each month. Of all the papers on psychedelics, the following have been some of the most influential and informative.
The studies below are sorted from large (population) to small (clinical experiments), and from outcomes (mental health) to underlying mechanisms (neurology).
The studies above are among the most read and cited papers about psychedelics. Take a deeper dive with our other lists on psychedelics papers. More will be added in the future
Psychedelics Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow
Serious scientific research with psychedelics has been ongoing since the 1950s. The use of psychedelics themselves has been going on since the time before history began. Mushrooms feature in cave paintings, statues, written texts, and rituals for centuries. Credible theories even link ergot (fungus, a precursor to LSD) to the potion used in the Eleusian Mysteries.
The term psychedelic (mind-manifesting) was first coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in correspondence with the author Aldous Huxley. It replaced less suitable definitions such as hallucinogen (to hallucinate) or psychomimetic (mimicking psychotic symptoms).
The early research with psychedelics (mainly LSD, psilocybin & MDMA) was done on quite a large scale and with good results. The studies by Osmond and others showed promise for alcohol addiction (over 2000 participants), use in psychotherapy, and creativity research. The studies did however not conform to the standards of today. There were (often) no placebo or control groups and later analyses found less exciting results (e.g. Krebs & Johansen, 2012 and Doblin, 1998)
The Controlled Substance Act put a stop to most research and therapists who provided psychedelic-assisted therapy had to go underground. Now over the last 20 years the tide has slowly (and recently more quickly) started turning. The research organizations mentioned above and others are showing the great promise of psychedelics for mental health improvements. The current expectation is that within the next few years a therapy assisted by psychedelics will be approved for use in the US (CA and EU).
At the same time, many decriminalization (and legalization) efforts are ongoing in the US, Canada, and all around the world. Drug policy dictated by a 'war on drugs' has turned out to be much more destructive than the drugs themselves. We hope that the current and future research on psychedelics will (continue to) provide evidence for the usefulness and safety of psychedelics.
This (very much) abbreviated history of psychedelics gives an overview of how research has progressed. Inside and outside of academia there is much more to learn about psychedelics history and future. The use of psychedelics around the world, especially in South America, has a long and colorful history. We wholly recommend also viewing the psychedelic timeline by Psychedelic Times.
The following books are great starting points to learn about (the history of) psychedelics.
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