A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Fixed Doses of Intranasal Esketamine Plus an Oral Antidepressant in Adult Participants With Treatment-resistant Depression (TRANSFORM-1)

The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of switching treatment-resistant depression (TRD) participants from a prior antidepressant treatment (to which they have not responded) to either intranasal esketamine plus a new oral antidepressant or switching to a new oral antidepressant plus intranasal placebo.

Status Completed
Results Published
Start date 10 August 2015
End date 20 February 2018
Chance of happening 100%
Phase Phase III
Design Blinded
Type Interventional
Generation Second
Participants 346
Sex All
Age 18- 64
Therapy No

Trial Details

This is a randomized, double-blind (neither the researchers nor the participants know what treatment the participant is receiving), active-controlled, multicenter study (more than 1 study site) in participants with TRD to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of fixed doses of intranasal esketamine plus a newly initiated oral antidepressant compared with a newly initiated oral antidepressant (active comparator) plus intranasal placebo. The study will consist of 3 phases: Screening/Prospective Observational Phase (4-7 weeks), Double-blind Induction Phase (4-weeks), Follow-up Phase (24-weeks). Participants who roll over into a long-term maintenance study will not participate in the Follow-up Phase. At the start of the screening/prospective observational phase, the participant must have had documented non-response to at least 1 antidepressant treatment (based on Massachusetts General Hospital - Antidepressant Treatment Response Questionnaire [MGH-ATRQ]) in the current episode of depression, and the participant is taking a different oral antidepressant treatment on the MGH-ATRQ for at least the previous 2 weeks at or above the minimum therapeutic dose. This antidepressant treatment, as well as any other ongoing medications being taken for depression at screening (including adjunctive/ augmentation therapies), will continue from the start of Week 1 through the end of Week 4 of the screening/prospective observational phase. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive Intranasal esketamine (56 milligrams [mg]), Intranasal esketamine (84 mg), or Intranasal placebo. In addition, each participant will be assigned to receive 1 of 4 oral antidepressant medications from 2 different classes of antidepressant treatments, a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) (escitalopram or sertraline) or a Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI) (duloxetine or venlafaxine extended-release [XR]), initiated on Day 1 and continued through the double-blind induction phase. Participants will be primarily evaluated for improvement in depressive symptoms as assessed by change in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at Week 4. Participants' safety will be monitored throughout the study.

NCT Number NCT02417064

Sponsors & Collaborators

Johnson & Johnson
One of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world, Johnson & Johnson are responsible for bringing esketamine to market in the form of Spravato.


Efficacy and safety of esketamine nasal spray by sex in patients with treatment-resistant depression: findings from short-term randomized, controlled trials
This post hoc analysis of three RCTs using esketamine in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) (n=721) found no sex differences when using esketamine for TRD. Across the three trials, it was found that the efficacy and overall safety of esketamine in patients with TRD were similar for both men and women. The most common adverse events in esketamine-treated patients were nausea, dissociation, dizziness, and vertigo, each reported at a rate higher in women than men.

Intranasal esketamine effectively treats treatment-resistant depression in adults regardless of baseline irritability
This post hoc analysis of two Phase III double-blind studies assessed the effects of baseline irritability on clinical outcomes in participants with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) (n=560) treated with intranasal ketamine (esketamine) plus an oral antidepressant (ESK + AD). ESK + AD improved symptoms of depression regardless of baseline irritability level and increased odds of achieving a response in all participants.

Data attribution

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