million people affected worldwide

Current Treatments

Psychedelic research currently is in Not Applicable

Healthy subjects or health normals is a term used for those who are currently not suffering from a mental health or substance use disorder. In psychedelic research, the term is often used to describe participants in Phase I or Phase II studies who are testing the safety of a treatment.

This topic is currently a stub, it will be expanded upon in the near future.

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Highlighted Institutes

These are the institutes, from companies to universities, who are working on Healthy Subjects.


EI.Ventures is a subsidiary of Orthogonal Thinker that is currently raising $50 million. Though scant on details, the company is developing Psilly (whole-plant botanical psilocybin-based formulation) and has (presumably) launched a consumer non-psychedelic mushroom brand 'Mana'.

Highlighted People

These are some of the best-known people, from researchers to entrepreneurs, working on Healthy Subjects.

Linked Research Papers about Healthy Subjects

Persisting decreases in state and trait anxiety post-psilocybin: A naturalistic, observational study among retreat attendees

High dose psilocybin is associated with positive subjective effects in healthy volunteers

A randomized controlled trial of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and fear extinction retention in healthy adults

Influence of CYP2D6 activity on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single 20 mg dose of ibogaine in healthy volunteers

Neural correlates of the psychedelic state as determined by fMRI studies with psilocybin

Brain serotonin 2A receptor binding predicts subjective temporal and mystical effects of psilocybin in healthy humans

Self-blinding citizen science to explore psychedelic microdosing

Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. I. Neuroendocrine, autonomic, and cardiovascular effects

Exploring the effect of microdosing psychedelics on creativity in an open-label natural setting

The epidemiology of 5-methoxy- N, N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) use: Benefits, consequences, patterns of use, subjective effects, and reasons for consumption

Evenings with Molly: Adult Couples’ Use of MDMA for Relationship Enhancement

Psilocybin-occasioned mystical-type experience in combination with meditation and other spiritual practices produces enduring positive changes in psychological functioning and in trait measures of prosocial attitudes and behaviors

Four weekly ayahuasca sessions lead to increases in “acceptance” capacities: a comparison study with a standard 8-week mindfulness training program

A phase 1, dose-ranging study to assess safety and psychoactive effects of a vaporized 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine formulation (GH001) in healthy volunteers

Dynamic reconfiguration of frequency-specific cortical coactivation patterns during psychedelic and anesthetized states induced by ketamine

Daytime ayahuasca administration modulates REM and slow-wave sleep in healthy volunteers

Psychopathological, neuroendocrine and autonomic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDE), psilocybin and d-methamphetamine in healthy volunteers: results of an experimental double-blind placebo-controlled study

Effective connectivity of emotion and cognition under psilocybin

Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of low dose lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy older volunteers

Acute effects of psilocybin after escitalopram or placebo pretreatment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in healthy subjects

Transformative experience and social connectedness mediate the mood-enhancing effects of psychedelic use in naturalistic settings

Contextual Parameters Associated with Positive and Negative Mental Health in Recreational Psychedelic Users

Sustained, multifaceted improvements in mental well-being following psychedelic experiences in a prospective opportunity sample

The effects of psilocybin on cognitive and emotional functions in healthy participants: Results from a phase 1, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving simultaneous psilocybin administration and preparation

Ketamine has distinct electrophysiological and behavioral effects in depressed and healthy subjects

Safety pharmacology of acute LSD administration in healthy subjects

Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness

Long-lasting subjective effects of LSD in normal subjects

Psilocybin induces time-dependent changes in global functional connectivity: Psi-induced changes in brain connectivity

Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of the psychedelic experience induced by N,N-dimethyltryptamine – implications for dose considerations

MDMA and Human Sexual Function

LSD, madness and healing: Mystical experiences as possible link between psychosis model and therapy model

MDMA and Sexual Behavior: Ecstasy Users' Perceptions About Sexuality and Sexual Risk

Experience of Music Used With Psychedelic Therapy: A Rapid Review and Implications

Remembering Molly: Immediate and delayed false memory formation after acute MDMA exposure

Intensity of Mystical Experiences Occasioned by 5-MeO-DMT and Comparison With a Prior Psilocybin Study

Psilocybin occasioned mystical-type experiences: immediate and persisting dose-related effects

Human pharmacology of mephedrone in comparison with MDMA

Acute psychological and physiological effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled dose–effect study

Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance

The effects of microdose LSD on time perception: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Human Cortical Serotonin 2A Receptor Occupancy by Psilocybin Measured Using [11C]MDL 100,907 Dynamic PET and a Resting-State fMRI-Based Brain Parcellation

LSD, afterglow and hangover: Increased episodic memory and verbal fluency, decreased cognitive flexibility

From Egoism to Ecoism: Psychedelics Increase Nature Relatedness in a State-Mediated and Context-Dependent Manner

Prediction of psilocybin response in healthy volunteers

Psilocybin modulation of dynamic functional connectivity is associated with plasma psilocin and subjective effects

Double-blind comparison of the two hallucinogens psilocybin and dextromethorphan: effects on cognition

Double-blind comparison of the two hallucinogens psilocybin and dextromethorphan: similarities and differences in subjective experiences

Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later

Dose-related Behavioral, Subjective, Endocrine and Psychophysiological Effects Of the Kappa Opioid Agonist Salvinorin A in Humans

Pharmacokinetics and subjective effects of a novel oral LSD formulation in healthy subjects

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