Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy—A Systematic Review of Associated Psychological Interventions

This review (2022) explored the use of structured associated psychotherapeutic interventions in psychedelic clinical research to construct a picture of what models of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy are currently adopted in such research. Common principles, points of divergence and future directions for such interventions are also discussed.


“Modern clinical research on psychedelics is generating interesting outcomes in a wide array of clinical conditions when psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy is delivered to appropriately screened participants and in controlled settings. Still, a number of patients relapse or are less responsive to such treatments. Individual and contextual factors (i.e., set and setting) seem to play a role in shaping the psychedelic experience and in determining clinical outcomes. These findings, coupled with data from the literature on the effectiveness of psychotherapy, frame the therapeutic context as a potential moderator of clinical efficacy, highlighting the need to investigate how to functionally employ environmental and relational factors. In this review, we performed a structured search through two databases (i.e., PubMed/Medline and Scopus) to identify records of clinical studies on psychedelics which used and described a structured associated psychotherapeutic intervention. The aim is to construct a picture of what models of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy are currently adopted in clinical research and to report on their clinical outcomes. Ad-hoc and adapted therapeutic methods were identified. Common principles, points of divergence and future directions are highlighted and discussed with special attention toward therapeutic stance, degree of directiveness and the potential suggestive effects of information provided to patients.”

Authors: Mauro Cavarra, Alessandra Falzone, Johannes G. Ramaekers, Kim P. C. Kuypers & Carmela Mento

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Study details

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Study characteristics
Literature Review

0 Humans


Authors associated with this publication with profiles on Blossom

Johannes Ramaekers
Johannes Ramaekers is a professor at Maastricht University his work focuses on behavioral toxicology of drugs and combines methods from psychopharmacology, forensic toxicology and neuroscience to determine drug-induced changes in human performance. Some of this research is done with DMT.

Kim Kuypers
Kim Kuypers is a researcher at Maastricht University. Her work is concerned with understanding the neurobiology underlying flexible cognition, empathy, and well-being. One of the main ways she does is with the use of psychedelics.

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