Persisting effects of ayahuasca on empathy, creative thinking, decentering, personality, and well-being

This provisionally accepted study (n=40) explored the effects of ayahuasca on processes involved in stress-related psychopathologies. Volunteers attending an ayahuasca ceremony were given a series of questionnaires at baseline, the morning after and one week after the experience. Researchers found ingesting ayahuasca is associated with positive therapeutic outcomes.


“Naturalistic and placebo-controlled studies have suggested that ayahuasca, a traditional Amazonian beverage, could be helpful in the treatment of psychopathologies like depression and anxiety disorders by changing otherwise disturbed cognitive and emotional processes. To better understand its full therapeutic potential, one way is to study the effects on processes like flexible thinking, empathy, and well-being, which are normally compromised in stress-related psychopathologies. Volunteers attending ayahuasca ceremonies were asked to complete a test battery at three separate occasions: baseline, the morning after, and one week after the ceremony. We included the constructs of creative thinking (measured by Picture Concept Task), empathy (Multifaceted Empathy Test), satisfaction with life (Satisfaction with Life Scale), decentering (Experiences Questionnaire), and personality (Big Five Inventory) into the test battery. Additionally, the psychedelic experience was quantified with the Persisting Effects Questionnaire, the Ego Dissolution Scale, and Visual Analogue Scales. In total, 43 attendees (males= 22; females= 21) completed parts of the baseline assessment, 20 (males= 12; females= 8) completed assessments in the morning after the ceremony, and 19 (males= 14; females= 5) completed assessments at the one-week follow-up. At one and seven days post-ceremony, cognitive empathy, satisfaction with life, and decentering increased, while divergent thinking (Fluency corrected for Originality) decreased, when compared to baseline. Implicit emotional empathy increased at one-week follow-up, whereas ratings of the trait neuroticism decreased. The study suggests that a single ingestion of ayahuasca in a social setting is associated with enhancement of subjective well-being, an enhanced ability to take an objective and non-judging stance towards the self (decentering), and the ability to correctly recognize emotions in others, compared to baseline, lasting up to one week post-ceremony. To understand the therapeutic potential related to these effects, further research with clinical populations is needed in which these effects can be assessed, including its link with therapeutic outcomes. Together, this will increase our understanding of the effectiveness and breadth of future therapeutic options.”

Authors: Maggie K. Kiraga, Natasha L. Mason, Malin V. Uthaug, Kim I. van Oorsouw, Stefan W. Toennes, Johannes G. Ramaekers & Kim P. C. Kuypers

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Study details

Compounds studied

Topics studied
Anxiety Personality Creativity

Study characteristics



Authors associated with this publication with profiles on Blossom

Natasha Mason
Natasha Mason is interested in elucidating the neurobiological and cognitive mechanisms of (psychedelic) drugs by utilizing multimodal study designs, with a particular focus on substances that may hold therapeutic value.

Johannes Ramaekers
Johannes Ramaekers is a professor at Maastricht University his work focuses on behavioral toxicology of drugs and combines methods from psychopharmacology, forensic toxicology and neuroscience to determine drug-induced changes in human performance. Some of this research is done with DMT.

Kim Kuypers
Kim Kuypers is a researcher at Maastricht University. Her work is concerned with understanding the neurobiology underlying flexible cognition, empathy, and well-being. One of the main ways she does is with the use of psychedelics.

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