This double-blind, placebo-controlled study (n=37) found that ketamine improved responses to rewards two hours after depressed patients had received ketamine (35mg/70kg) treatment. This correlated with neurological observations (increases in activation of NAc, the putamen, the insula, and the caudate).
“Background Ketamine as an antidepressant improves anhedonia as early as 2h post-infusion. These drug effects are thought to be exerted via actions on reward-related brain areas—yet, these actions remain largely unknown. Our study investigates ketamine’s effects during the anticipation and receipt of an expected reward, after the psychotomimetic effects of ketamine have passed, when early antidepressant effects are reported.
Methods We examined ketamine’s effects during the anticipation and receipt of expected rewards on pre-defined brain areas, namely the dorsal and ventral striatum, the ventral tegmental area, the amygdala and the insula. We have recruited 37 male and female participants who remitted from depression and were free from symptoms and antidepressant treatments at the time of the scan. Participants were scanned, 2h after drug administration, in a double-blind cross over design (ketamine:0.5mg/kg and placebo) while performing a monetary reward task.
Results A significant main effect of ketamine, across all ROIs, was observed during the anticipation and feedback phases of win and no-win trials. The drug effects were particularly prominent in the nucleus accumbens and putamen, which showed increased activation upon the receipt of smaller rewards compared to neutral. The levels of (2R,6R)-HNK, 2h post-infusion, significantly correlated with the activation observed in the ventral tegmental area for that contrast.
Conclusions These findings demonstrate that ketamine can produce detectable changes in reward-related brain areas, 2h after infusion, which occur without symptom changes and support the idea that ketamine might improve reward-related symptoms via modulation of response to feedback.”
Authors: Vasileia Kotoula, Argyris Stringaris, Nuria Mackes, Ndabezinhle Mazibuko, Peter C. T. Hawkins, Maura Furey, H. Valerie Curran & Mitul A. Mehta