Psychedelic Research Papers

Receptor interaction profiles of novel N-2-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe) derivatives of 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines (2C drugs)
This in vitro study investigates the receptor binding profiles of NBOMe drugs compared to their 2C drug analogs and LSD. It finds that NBOMe drugs exhibit high affinity for 5-HT2A receptors, suggesting strong hallucinogenic effects similar to LSD, but with potentially more stimulant properties due to interactions with α1 receptors.
Neuropharmacology
December 2015
Cited by 204
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) and structurally related phenylethylamines are potent 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in Xenopus laevis oocytes
This in vitro study examines 2,5-dimethoxy-4-substituted phenethylamines (PEAs) including 2C-I, 2C-B, 2C-D, and 2C-H analogs, focusing on their receptor interactions. It finds these compounds act as 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, differing in potency based on specific substituents. This suggests their psychostimulant effects may not solely derive from 5-HT2A receptor agonism.
BJPsych Open
April 2004
Cited by 65
Rapid effects of tryptamine psychedelics on perceptual distortions and early visual cortical population receptive fields
This within-subject MRI study (n=11) finds that inhaled DMT increases the mean population receptive field (pRF) sizes in the peripheral visual field of the primary visual cortex (V1). Documented by the Hallucinogen Rating Scale (HRS), this effect explains visual perceptual distortions like field blurring and tunnel vision, and supports the role of 5-HT2A receptor activation in controlling visual cortex activity.
NeuroImage
July 2024
Cited by 0
Interrupting the Psychedelic Experience Through Contextual Manipulation to Study Experience Efficacy
This secondary analysis from a DMT study explores the impact of intentional cognitive interruptions on psychedelic experiences. The study investigates whether increasing cognitive load during the experience affects subjective ratings, hypothesizing that higher task demands would lower these ratings. Additionally, it examines whether reduced task demands correlate with larger reductions in long-term depressive symptoms.
JAMA Network Open
July 2024
Cited by 0
Behavioral, neurochemical and pharmaco-EEG profiles of the psychedelic drug 4-bromo-2, 5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in rats
This experimental study investigates the behavioral, neurochemical, and EEG profiles 2C-B in rats. 2C-B demonstrates biphasic effects on locomotion, initially inhibitory and then excitatory, contrasting with amphetamine which induces solely hyperlocomotion. Both compounds disrupt prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reaction, albeit with different effects on acoustic startle response (ASR). In the nucleus accumbens (NAc), 2C-B increases dopamine levels but decreases 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), suggesting potential psychotomimetic and addictive properties. EEG analyses reveal that low doses of 2C-B reduce power spectra and coherence, whereas high doses show biphasic effects on EEG power and coherence.
Psychopharmacology
July 2012
Cited by 60
Functional selectivity of hallucinogenic phenethylamine and phenylisopropylamine derivatives at human 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A and 5-HT2C receptors
This comparative study on 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-substituted phenylisopropylamines and phenethylamines examines their activity as serotonin 5-HT2A/2C agonists. It finds that phenylisopropylamines generally exhibit higher efficacy than phenethylamines at the 5-HT2A receptor, but both act as partial agonists at the 5-HT2C receptor. The research highlights differential activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) pathways by these compounds in cell-based assays, with phenylisopropylamines showing stronger efficacy as head shake inducers in rats, supporting the concept of functional selectivity in receptor signaling pathways.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
May 2007
Cited by 131
Psilocybin and 4-Bromo-2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) at Encoding Distort Episodic Familiarity
This re-analysis of an RCT study (n=20) tested the acute effects of psilocybin and 2C-B on the encoding of emotional episodic memories. The study finds that both psychedelics impair estimates of recollection and familiarity, increase familiarity-based false alarms for emotional stimuli, and affect metamemory, indicating a common neurocognitive mechanism across these drugs.
Biological Psychiatry
June 2024
Cited by 0
Acute Effects of Hallucinogens on Functional Connectivity: Psilocybin and Salvinorin-A
This fMRI study explores the effects of psilocybin (a serotonergic psychedelic) and Salvinorin-A (a kappa-opioid receptor agonist) on resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in nonhuman primates. It reveals both drugs influence FC around the thalamus, claustrum, prefrontal cortex (PFC), and default mode network (DMN), with similarities and differences noted between them.
ACS Chemical Neuroscience
June 2024
Cited by 0
Do classic psychedelics increase the risk of seizures? A scoping review
This scoping review (s=27) assesses the relationship between classic psychedelics and seizures. It finds that psychedelics may not increase seizure risk in healthy individuals or animals without other drugs, but concomitant use of substances like kambo or lithium could heighten the risk.
European Neuropsychopharmacology
June 2024
Cited by 0
A Transformative Trip? Experiences of Psychedelic Use
This study (n=26) empirically examines whether psychedelic experiences constitute transformative experiences. Results indicate that psychedelics can lead to significant changes in identity, values, beliefs, desires, and behavior, with 20 participants reporting unique insights and the majority experiencing behavioural changes. Participants felt informed and capable in their decision to use psychedelics, and many reported an enhanced ability to enact changes in their lives.
Neuroethics
June 2024
Cited by 0
Purging to cleanse: a qualitative study of Ayahuasca healing at a drug treatment centre in Peru
This qualitative study (n=11) explores practitioner perspectives on purging during Ayahuasca rituals at the Takiwasi Centre in Peru. Interviews with curanderos, plant preparers, and psychotherapists reveal three main explanatory models: spiritual-oriented, Amazonian-oriented, and clinical-oriented, all emphasizing the interconnectedness of purging and healing in Ayahuasca-assisted treatment for substance dependence.
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
June 2024
Cited by 0
Co-administration of midazolam and psilocybin: Differential effects on subjective quality versus memory of the psychedelic experience
This pre-print open-label study (n=8) co-administered psilocybin (25mg) with the amnestic benzodiazepine midazolam to assess the role of memory in the therapeutic effects of psilocybin. It finds that midazolam partially impaired memory while allowing a conscious psychedelic experience, with memory impairment inversely associated with salience, insight, and well-being induced by psilocybin, suggesting a role for memory in its therapeutic effects.
Biorxiv
June 2024
Cited by 0
Bioisosteric analogs of MDMA: Improving the pharmacological profile?
This in vitro and in silico study investigates whether three new methylenedioxy bioisosteres of MDMA improve its off-target profile. Compared with MDMA, these bioisosteres (ODMA, TDMA, and SeDMA) show similar activity at human serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters but decreased agonist activity at 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors and different hepatic metabolism, suggesting potential as safer therapeutic alternatives.
Journal of Neurochemistry
June 2024
Cited by 0
Time-resolved coupling between connectome harmonics and subjective experience under the psychedelic DMT
This reanalysis of a single-blind neuroscience study (n=17) explores the relationship between brain structure and function, focusing on subjective experience through the use of psychedelic substances. It uses connectome harmonic decomposition to demonstrate that the connectome harmonic repertoire and entropy increase under DMT, and these measures correlate with the intensity of subjective experience, similar to effects seen with psilocybin, LSD, and ketamine.
Biorxiv
May 2024
Cited by 0
Esketamine combined with a mindfulness-based intervention for individuals with alcohol problems
This double-blind, pilot study (n=28) investigates esketamine combined with mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) for individuals with alcohol misuse problems. Esketamine enhanced psychological engagement in MBI and transiently decreased alcohol cravings, while also resulting in greater mystical experiences and dissociative states compared to placebo.
Psychopharmacology
June 2024
Cited by 0
The Role of Music in Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy: A Comparative Analysis of Neuroscientific Research, Indigenous Entheogenic Ritual, and Contemporary Care Models
This review evaluates the role of music in psychedelic-assisted therapies (PAT) and indigenous entheogenic ceremonies. It examines neuroscientific, psychological, and anthropological research, highlighting the need for personalized music protocols and the integration of traditional practices into modern treatment models to enhance clinical outcomes.
Psychedelic Medicine
June 2024
Cited by 0
Developing an Ethics and Policy Framework for Psychedelic Clinical Care: A Consensus Statement
This consensus statement (n=27) identifies key ethics and policy issues for integrating psychedelic therapies into clinical practice. It reports 20 points of consensus across 5 ethical issues, with relevant actors responsible for implementation, and highlights areas needing further research and deliberation.
JAMA Network Open
June 2024
Cited by 2
Functional changes in sleep-related arousal after ketamine administration in individuals with treatment-resistant depression
This secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial (n=61) evaluates the impact of ketamine on sleep metrics in individuals with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) compared to healthy volunteers (HVs). It finds that while ketamine affects delta and alpha power during sleep, it does not significantly alter sleep macroarchitecture or mediate its antidepressant and anti-suicidal effects through sleep variables.
Translational Psychiatry
June 2024
Cited by 0
Attitudes of psychedelic users regarding cost of treatment and non-hallucinogenic alternatives
This survey (n=1,221) of psychedelic users assesses attitudes towards altered states of consciousness in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (PAP) and the potential of non-hallucinogenic analogues. Most participants (76%) believe altered states are crucial for therapeutic effects, but 61% would try a non-hallucinogenic alternative. Additionally, respondents consider $70–80 per hour a reasonable cost for PAP services, which is below current market rates.
Journal of Psychedelic Studies
May 2024
Cited by 0
Effects of a Single Dose of Ayahuasca in College Students With Harmful Alcohol Use: A Single-blind, Feasibility, Proof-of-Concept Trial
This single-blind feasibility study (n=11) investigated the effects of one dose of ayahuasca (70ml/70kg) plus psychological support on the drinking patterns of college students with harmful alcohol consumption (mild alcoholism; AUD). A trend towards reduction in alcohol consumption (after statistical correction) was found.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
June 2024
Cited by 0
Novel extended-release transdermal formulations of the psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
This paper outlines the formulation development, in vitro, and in vivo testing of transdermal drug-in-adhesive DMT patches using various adhesives and permeation enhancers. In vivo behavioural and pharmacokinetic studies performed with lead patch formulation (F5) in male and female Swiss Webster mice showed that transdermal administration provided consistent, extended drug release at a non-hallucinogenic dose, with a 77% bioavailability compared to IV at two dosages.
European Journal of Pharmacology
May 2024
Cited by 0
Long-term ayahuasca use is associated with preserved global cognitive function and improved memory: a cross-sectional study with ritual users
This observational, cross-sectional study (n=48) investigates the influence of ritualistic ayahuasca consumption on cognition among experienced (n=16) and beginner (n=16) ayahuasca users and a control group (n=16). It finds no evidence of cognitive decline among ayahuasca users, with experienced users showing higher scores in tasks assessing working verbal and visuospatial memories compared to beginners.
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
May 2024
Cited by 0
The Influence of Psilocybin on Subconscious and Conscious Emotional Learning
This double-blind, placebo-controlled study (n=30) investigates the learning effects of psilocybin (up to 20 mg) in a probabilistic cue-reward task with emotional cues. It finds that psilocybin preserves learning effects, is non-inferior to placebo, and suggests higher exploratory behaviour. The 20 mg group showed significantly better learning rates than placebo.
iScience
May 2024
Cited by 0
Evolving Guidelines for the Use of Touch During a Clinical Trial of Group Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy
This technical report (2024) describes the evolving guidelines for facilitator use of touch in a group retreat-based format of psilocybin-assisted therapy. The primary goal is to create a safe and supportive haptic experience during sessions, with a secondary goal of maintaining therapeutic boundaries and responding to participant experiences with empathy.
Psychedelic Medicine
May 2024
Cited by 0
AlphaFold2 structures guide prospective ligand discovery
This prospective docking study compares the effectiveness of docking large libraries against unrefined AlphaFold2 (AF2) models of σ2 and 5-HT2A receptors with docking against experimental structures. It finds high and similar hit rates and affinities for both AF2 and experimental structures, despite conformational differences in orthosteric residues, and suggests that AF2 models, while differing from experimental structures, are still relevant and effective for structure-based ligand discovery.
Science
May 2024
Cited by 0
Intranasal ketamine for acute cluster headache attacks—Results from a proof-of-concept open-label trial
This open-label pilot study (n=20) investigated the safety and efficacy of intranasal ketamine for treating a single cluster headache (CH) attack. While the primary endpoint of a 50% reduction in pain intensity within 15 minutes was not met, at 30 minutes post-treatment, pain intensity was significantly reduced by 59% on an 11-point scale, with no serious adverse events reported.
Headache
November 2021
Cited by 10
Experiences of Awe Mediate Ketamine's Antidepressant Effects: Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial in Treatment-Resistant Depression
This randomized controlled trial (n=116) investigated the psychological mechanisms of ketamine's antidepressant effects. Participants receiving ketamine reported significantly heightened feelings of awe compared to those receiving a placebo. Awe experiences, as measured by the Awe Experience Scale (AWE-S), mediated depression outcomes (% improvement in MADRS scores) at multiple time points (24 hours and 5, 12, 21, and 30 days) post-infusion, indicating a potential role of awe in ketamine's therapeutic efficacy for depression.
Biological Psychiatry
May 2024
Cited by 0
Investigating the relationship between changes in metaphysical beliefs and death anxiety following a significant psychedelic experience
This exploratory study (n=155) investigates the relationship between changes in metaphysical beliefs and death anxiety following a significant psychedelic experience. It finds a significant overall reduction in death anxiety, with improvements correlated positively with increased belief in panpsychism, while no other metaphysical beliefs showed a correlation.
Death Studies
May 2024
Cited by 0
How Do Psychedelics Reduce Fear of Death?
This theory-building paper (2024) examines how psychedelic experiences reduce fear of death by promoting non-physicalist metaphysical beliefs. It supports the "Relaxed Beliefs Under Psychedelics" (REBUS) model over other models of psychedelic therapy and argues that these belief changes undermine the use of psychedelics in naturalizing spirituality within the "neuroexistentialist" framework.
Neuroethics
May 2024
Cited by 0
Navigating Groundlessness: An interview study on dealing with ontological shock and existential distress following psychedelic experiences
This qualitative study (n=26) explored existential distress following psychedelic experiences, finding persistent preoccupation with sense-making and confusion about existence and purpose. Participants reported cognitive, emotional, social, bodily, and functional impacts. They managed distress through embodiment practices and social/cognitive normalization.
SSRN
May 2024
Cited by 0

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Find all relevant psychedelic research papers in our ever-growing database. Here we cover and connect the latest research and seminal papers. From early open-label psychedelic studies with healthy volunteers to large-scale double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.

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