Hallucinogen persisting perceptual disorder: a scoping review covering frequency, risk factors, prevention and treatment

This scoping review (2022) explores the prevalence, risk factors and pathophysiology of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) among different psychedelics. While HPPD is uncommon, current interest in psychedelic research affords the opportunity to characterize HPPD in its frequency, risk and protective factors, key characteristics, and potential treatments.


“Introduction: Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) affects a subset of persons who use hallucinogens and is defined as the repeated experience of hallucinations and other perceptual disturbances as a result of prior intoxications. As hallucinogens are under development for the treatment of select mental disorders, there is a need to better characterize this disorder.

Areas covered: A scoping review of the literature on HPPD was completed from inception to July 2021. Topics covered in the review herein include treatments for HPPD, prevalence or incidence data on HPPD amongst different classes of hallucinogens, risk factors for HPPD, and data pertaining to the pathophysiology of HPPD.

Expert opinion: HPPD appears to be an uncommon yet serious event associated with prior hallucinogen exposure. The renewed interest in psychedelics for select mental disorders, especially agents with hallucinogenic potential provides the impetus to characterize HPPD in its frequency, risk and protective factors, key characteristics, as well as other clinical and treatment-related factors.”

Authors: Marcus A. Doyle, Susan Ling, Leanna M. W. Lui, Paul Fragnelli, Kayla M. Teopiz, Roger Ho, Joshua D. Di Vincenzo, Joshua D. Rosenblat, Emily S. Gillissie, Danica Nogo, Felicia Ceban, Muhammad Y. Jawad & Roger S. McIntyre

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Literature Review