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Our vision is that psychedelics can be used worldwide to better the lives of as many as 450 million people who suffer from mental health problems. Our information hopes to make that vision come to life just a little faster.
Here will be a narrative, readable, summary of the research.
In our literature study we came across the following studies of note. Browse the meta, review, commentary articles for an overview. Check out the individual studies for specific experiments and observations.
Ketamine: A tale of two enantiomers
2020 | Jelen, L. A., Stone, J. M., Young, A. H.
This review (2020) summarizes the clinical findings of ketamine as a treatment for depression, and discusses the differences between (S)-ketamine and (R)-ketamine.
From Hofmann to the Haight Ashbury, and into the Future: The Past and Potential of Lysergic Acid Diethlyamide
2014 | Dickerson Davidson, L., Raswyck, G. E., Smith, D. E.
This review (2014) summarises the history of LSD research and outlines the potential applications in the future.
A review of emerging therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses
2020 | Chi, T., Gold, J. A.
This review (2020) presents modern human studies into psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, LSD, MDMA, and ayahuasca in the treatment of various psychiatric illnesses, including treatment-resistant depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, end-of-life anxiety, and substance use disorders. Safety and efficacy data are also presented, from both human and animal studies.
The Emerging Role of Psilocybin and MDMA in the Treatment of Mental Illness
2020 | Cha, D. S., Chen-Li, D., El-Halabi, S., Gill, B., Gill, H., Ho, R., Lee, Y., Lipsitz, O., Majeed, A., Mansur, R. B., McIntyre, R. S., Nasri, F., Rodrigues, N. B., Rosenblat, J. D.
This narrative review (2020) evaluates the therapeutic potential of psilocybin and MDMA for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety. The review explains the need for effective mental health treatments and highlights the lack of dose-response studies in placebo-controlled settings with a real-world clinical population.
A comparison of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to non-assisted psychotherapy in treatment-resistant PTSD: A systematic review and meta-analysis
2020 | Duffy, J. M. N., Illingworth, B. J. G., Jelen, L. A., Lambarth, A. T., Lewis, D. J., Rucker, J.
This systematic review and meta-analysis (2020) of MDMA-assisted therapy for PTSD, found that over four RCT's (n=67), PTSD scores (CAPS-IV) were lower in the 75mg and 125mg groups (not 100mg), and depression scores (BDI) only in the 75mg group.
Therapeutic effects of classic serotonergic psychedelics: A systematic review of modern-era clinical studies
2020 | Andersen, K. A. A., Carhart-Harris, R. L., Erritzoe, D., Nutt, D. J.
This systematic review (2020) looked at 10 modern studies (n=188) on psychedelics (psilocybin, ayahuasca, LSD) for the treatment of a variety of mental health disorders. The review found the studies to provide evidence for efficacy (up to months later) and safety.
A Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials of Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy
2020 | Bathje, G. J., Chwyl, C., Davis, A. K., Lancelotta, R., Luoma, J. B.
This meta-analysis of nine placebo-controlled trials (n=211) showed a very large effect size (g=1.21) of treatment on four mental health conditions (PTSD, end-of-life anxiety, depression, social anxiety among autistic adults).
Neural correlates of change in major depressive disorder anhedonia following open-label ketamine
2015| Nutt, D. J.
This open-label study (n=52) investigated the effects of ketamine (35mg/70kg) with regard to the neural correlates related to the remission of anhedonia in major depressive disorder (MDD). Ketamine infusion rapidly reduced anhedonia, a trend that was sustained for three days and correlated with increased glucose metabolism in the hippocampus and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and decreased metabolism in the inferior frontal gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC).
Single, Fixed-Dose Intranasal Ketamine for Alleviation of Acute Suicidal Ideation. An Emergency Department, Trans-Diagnostic Approach: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Proof-of-Concept Trial
2021| Domany, Y., McCullumsmith, C. B.
This double-blind placebo-controlled study study (n=30) with intranasal ketamine (40mg) found significant reductions in suicidal ideation (SI, 80 vs 33% remission) and depressive symptoms (MADRS) 4 hours after administration for those with SI in the emergency department.
Investigation of medical effect of multiple ketamine infusions on patients with major depressive disorder
This open-label study (n=77) examines the sustained effects of six consecutive ketamine infusions (0.5mg/kg over 40 min) in Chinese patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Six ketamine infusions increased rates of response and remission when compared to a single-dose ketamine infusion in patients with MDD.
A single inhalation of vapor from dried toad secretion containing 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) in a naturalistic setting is related to sustained enhancement of satisfaction with life, mindfulness-related capacities, and a decrement of psychopathological symptoms
2019| Jurok, R., Kuchar, M., Kuypers, K. P. C., Lancelotta, R., Maryska, M., Mason, N. L., Páleníček, T., Rak, J., Ramaekers, J. G., Riba, J., Sulakova, A., Uthaug, M. V., van Oorsouw, K.
This open-label (naturalistic) study (n=42) with 5-MeO-DMT (smoked) found that it significantly reduced ratings of depression, anxiety, and stress. It also increased scores on mindfulness and life satisfaction. These effects correlated with higher ego dissolution and oceanic boundlessness during the acute experience.
People of color in North America report improvements in racial trauma and mental health symptoms following psychedelic experiences
2020| Davis, A. K., Grigas, P. C., Haeny, A. M., Sepeda, N. D., Sinnott, S., Williams, T. M., Xin, Y.
This survey study (n=313) suggests that psychedelic experiences (MDMA, LSD, psilocybin) could reduce symptoms of racial trauma. The participant, 30 days later, slowed moderate reductions in traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and stress.
Antidepressant Efficacy of Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression: A Two-Site Randomized Controlled Trial
2013| Al Jurdi, R. K., Chang, L. C., Charney, D. S., Foulkes, A., Green, C. E., Iosifescu, D. V., Iqbal, S., Mathew, S. J., Murrough, J. W., Perez, A. M., Pillemer, S., Shah, A.
This rigorous randomized controlled trial (n=73) found that ketamine has rapid (24 hours) anti-depressant effects (MARDS) for those with treatment-resistant depression (TRD).
Rapid and Longer-Term Antidepressant Effects of Repeated Ketamine Infusions in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression
2012| Charney, D. S., Collins, K. A., Iosifescu, D. V., Mathew, S. J., Murrough, J. W., Parides, M. K., Perez, A. M., Pillemer, S., Rot, M. A. H., Stern, J.
This open-label study (n=24) found that repeated infusions of ketamine can sustain the rapid anti-depressant effect obtained after one infusion. Nevertheless, the effect of 6 infusions was only maintained for a median of 18 days.
Effects of ayahuasca on psychometric measures of anxiety, panic-like and hopelessness in Santo Daime members
2007| Cruz, A. P. M., Dos Santos, R. G., Landeira-Fernandez, J., Motta, V., Strassman, R. J.
This double-blind placebo-controlled study (2007; n=9) investigated state and trait anxiety, hopelessness, and panic under the acute influence of ayahuasca in long-term users. Results show decreases in hopelessness and panic, but no change in anxiety.
Replication of Ketamine’s Antidepressant Efficacy in Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Controlled Add-On Trial
2012| Brutsche, N. E., Cravchik, A., Diazgranados, N., Franco-Chaves, J., Ibrahim, L., Liberty, V., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Marquardt, C. A., Selter, J., Zarate, C. A.
This double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled replication study (n=15) investigated the effects of ketamine (35mg) on patients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression, and found rapid improvements of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and subjective well-being within 40 minutes after infusion and up to 3 days after.
Attenuation and anticipation: A therapeutic use of lysergic acid diethylamide
1972| Kast, E.
This open-label clinical study (n=128) investigated whether LSD (100μg) can alleviate death-anxiety in terminally ill patients by decreasing the anticipation of their illness, and found that the administration of LSD was universally well tolerated. Specific effects included a general lift of mood that lasted for 11-12 hours, acute pain relief that lasted 12 hours, decreased the total pain intensity for 3 weeks, and diminished concern over the anticipation of death for up to 3 days after administration.
Ketamine for Rapid Reduction of Suicidal Thoughts in Major Depression: A Midazolam-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial
2018| Burke, A. K., Choo, T-H., Galfalvy, H. C., Grunebaum, M. F., Keilp, J. G., Mann, J. J., Marver, J. E., Milak, M. S., Moitra, V. K., Oquendo, M. A., Parris, M. S., Sublette, M. E.
This randomized study (n=80) found that participants with depression (MDD) and suicidal ideation (SSI/SI) who were treated with ketamine (IV, 35mg/70kg) have significantly lower SSI scores versus treatment with midazolam (another anesthetic). This effect consistently held up to 6 weeks later.
Rapid and sustained decreases in suicidality following a single dose of ayahuasca among individuals with recurrent major depressive disorder: results from an open-label trial
2020| de Lima Osório, F., Dos Santos, R. G., Hallak, J. E., Sanches, R. F., Weissman, C. R., Zeifman, R. J.
This analysis of an earlier open-label study (n=15) on Ayahuasca, found significant (Hedges' g = 1.75) and sustained decreases in suicidality in people with depression (MDD).
Post-Psychedelic Reductions in Experiential Avoidance Are Associated With Decreases in Depression Severity and Suicidal Ideation
2020| Carhart-Harris, R. L., Kettner, H., Mertens, L. J., Wagner, A. C., Watts, R., Zeifman, R. J.
A prospective survey study (n=358) found that psychedelics may lead to significant decreases in experiential avoidance, depression severity, and suicidal ideation.
Acute subjective effects in LSD- and MDMA-assisted psychotherapy
2020| Gasser, P., Liechti, M. E., Oehen, P., Schmid, Y.
This open-label study (n=18) of group-therapy with LSD and MDMA aimed to describe the characteristics, treatment indicators, and acute effects on patients. The study makes a comparison with data from other (earlier) studies on the MEQ and ASC.
Psychedelic Treatment for Trauma-Related Psychological and Cognitive Impairment Among US Special Operations Forces Veterans
2020| Amoroso, T., Averill, L. A., Barsuglia, J. P., Davis, A. K., Sepeda, N. D.
This survey study (n=51) found very large effects on mental health for special forces veterans after ibogaine and 5-MeO-DMT treatment.
This section compares the research with psychedelics to other therapies, medicines, or treatments.
This section highlights the various measures used and their use in research.
Who are the top researches in this area, the ones who have done the groundbreaking research.
What do we not know at this time? Where are the gaps in our knowledge and are we closing it?
The companies that are actively engaged in researching this topic or (planning to) provide therapy focussed on this topic.
This section highlights everything done outside of academia, from popular press to books and non academic research.