State of Research
Quality of Conclusions
TBD Papers studying this directly
TBD Companies working on this
Make Blossom Sustainable
Blossom is free to use and will always be.
Supporting Blossom makes this possible. When you support Blossom for €20/month, you get access to our downloadable files, influence over the direction of our 'psychedelics and ...' pages, and future projects.
Our vision is that psychedelics can be used worldwide to better the lives of as many as 450 million people who suffer from mental health problems. Our information hopes to make that vision come to life just a little faster.
Here will be a narrative, readable, summary of the research.
In our literature study we came across the following studies of note. Browse the meta, review, commentary articles for an overview. Check out the individual studies for specific experiments and observations.
Administration of ketamine for unipolar and bipolar depression
2017 | Bartova, L., Carlberg, L., Gryglewski, G., Kasper, S., Kraus, C., Lanzenberger, R., Papageorgiou, K., Popovic, A., Rabl, U., Rybakowski, J. K., Spies, M., Vanicek, T., Willeit, M., Winkler, D.
This review (2017) examined clinical trials that investigated the antidepressant efficacy of ketamine for unipolar (MDD) and bipolar depression (BD). Results indicate that intravenous and intranasal ketamine produces strong reductions of depressive symptoms within a short period and with response rates up to 88%, however, depressive relapse occurs in up to 90% of patients within 2 weeks after treatment.
Efficacy and safety of ketamine in bipolar depression: A systematic review
2017 | Alberich, S., González-Pinto, A., López, P., Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, M., Nuñez, N. A., Vieta, E., Zorrilla, I.
This review (2017) compared the safety and efficacy of ketamine for bipolar depression across scientific studies (1 clinical trial, 4 case studies, 5 cohort studies), which showed that symptoms are reduced swiftly and effectively in response to treatment, but they reappear relatively quickly within 3-14 days depending on the scale used to measure symptoms. Ketamine may be considered safe and effective for treating some cases of bipolar depression, although it has a short duration of action, in the absence of confirming studies designed specifically for bipolar depression.
Do the dissociative side effects of ketamine mediate its antidepressant effects?
2014 | Brutsche, N. E., Guevara, S., Ionescu, D. F., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Niciu, M. J., Nolan, N. M., Richards, E. M., Zarate, C. A.
This meta-analysis (n=108) examined whether the rapid antidepressant effect of a single subanesthetic ketamine (35mg/70kg) infusion is mediated by its dissociative side-effects or other symptoms related to its psychotomimetic profile. The analysis revealed that its dissociative effect was the only mediator that predicted a robust and sustained antidepressant efficacy.
The use of ketamine as an antidepressant: a systematic review and meta-analysis
2015 | Coyle, C. M., Laws, K. R.
This meta-analysis (2015; n=437) examined the antidepressant effects of ketamine, with regard to its efficacy over short and long-term periods, across single or repeated infusions, moderating variables related to the experimental design, and efficacy amongst patients with depression (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BD). Results conveyed that ketamine is an effective and rapid treatment for depression in the short term, with large antidepressant effects emerging after 4 hours and lasting up to 2 weeks post-infusion in participants with a primary diagnosis of MDD or BD. Repeated infusion showed larger effect sizes but did not extend the duration of antidepressant effect.
Ketamine for treatment-resistant depression: recent developments and clinical applications
2016 | Iosifescu, D. V., Murrough, J. W., Schwartz, J.
This clinical review (2016) examines the fasting-acting effects of ketamine for alleviating symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD), with regard to its administration method, its safety profile, and its general effects on suicidal ideation, anhedonia, cognition. It also examines which patient profiles predict the most effective response duration while highlighting that the manifestation of depressive symptoms make it challenging to predict the efficacy of ketamine, and although further research is underway to elucidate the role of genetic, central neurobiological, and peripheral measures, it is still too early to recommend their adoption in clinical practice.
Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Unipolar and Bipolar Major Depression: Critical Review and Implications for Clinical Practice
2016 | Bobo, W. V., Croarkin, P. E., Frye, M. A., Leung, J. G., Tye, S. J., Vande Voort, J. L.
This review (2016) examines the clinical efficacy of ketamine as fast-acting pharmacotherapy for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder (BP), in light of the available evidence. In the authors' view, there is insufficient empirical support for the early adoption of ketamine into routine practice, given the lack of data on the longer-term safety of ketamine as an antidepressant therapy, which will require the development of clinical protocols with standardized screening, clinical phenotyping, and follow-up procedures.
Classic psychedelic coadministration with lithium, but not lamotrigine, is associated with seizures: an analysis of online psychedelic experience reports
2021| Barrett, F. S., Erowid, F., Erowid, E., Griffiths, R. R., Gukasyan, N., Nayak, S.
This analysis of online reports (n=96) found that the use of psychedelics in combination with lithium led to seizures (47%), bad trips (64%), and emergency medical treatment (39%). The authors express the caution people should take when self-medicating/combining psychedelics with antidepressants (with lithium being commonly used for bipolar disorder).
Mania following use of ibogaine: A case series
2015| Koek, R. J., Kopelowicz, A., Marta, C. J., Ryan, W. C.
This case report (n=3) examines patients who developed manic symptoms and diagnosed with Bipolar-I disorder in response to ibogaine use. None of the patients had a prior diagnosis or family history of bipolar disorder, but all of them were poly-drug users or recovering from addiction. Manic symptoms which often included grand delusions that lasted up to two weeks after using ibogaine.
Switch to mania after ayahuasca consumption in a man with bipolar disorder: a case report
2015| Smith, J. M., Szmulewicz, A. G., Valerio, M. P.
This case report describes the clinical profile of a man from Argentina with a family history of bipolar disorder who participated in a four-day Ayahuasca ceremony that led to the eruption of a hypomanic episode two days after, consisting of mystical and paranoid delusional ideas, auditory hallucinations, racing thoughts, disorganized behavior, elevated energy, and manic euphoria. Given that the remission of psychotic symptoms was immediately followed by an onset of depressive symptoms, the authors theorize that antidepressant effects of harmine may have occasioned the manic shift of his bipolar disorder.
Replication of Ketamine’s Antidepressant Efficacy in Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Controlled Add-On Trial
2012| Brutsche, N. E., Cravchik, A., Diazgranados, N., Franco-Chaves, J., Ibrahim, L., Liberty, V., Luckenbaugh, D. A., Marquardt, C. A., Selter, J., Zarate, C. A.
This double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled replication study (n=15) investigated the effects of ketamine (35mg) on patients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression, and found rapid improvements of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and subjective well-being within 40 minutes after infusion and up to 3 days after.
This section compares the research with psychedelics to other therapies, medicines, or treatments.
This section highlights the various measures used and their use in research.
Who are the top researches in this area, the ones who have done the groundbreaking research.
What do we not know at this time? Where are the gaps in our knowledge and are we closing it?
The companies that are actively engaged in researching this topic or (planning to) provide therapy focussed on this topic.
This section highlights everything done outside of academia, from popular press to books and non academic research.